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# Carnegie Physics 1

### Basics/Intro to Sound

Term | Definition |
---|---|

Measurement of Wavelength | milimeters |

Measurement of Propagation Speed | meters/sec |

Measurement of Frequency | Hertz |

Measurement of Period | Seconds (time) |

Measurement of Intensity | Watts/cm^2 |

Measurement of Power | Watts |

Is Frequency and Period Direct, Inverse or Unrelated? | Inverse |

Is wavelength and velocity direct, inverse or unrelated? | Direct |

Is amplitude and intensity direct, inverse or unrelated? | Direct |

is frequency and depth of penetration direct, inverse or unrelated? | Inverse |

Is crystal thickness and amplitude direct, inverse or unrelated? | Unrelated |

Is voltage to crystal and period of wave direct, inverse or unrelated? | Unrelated |

Is propagation speed and density of medium direct, inverse or unrelated? | Inverse |

Is frequency direct, inverse or unrelated to wavelength? | inverse |

is frequency direct, inverse or unrelated to crystal thickness? | inverse |

What is wavelength? | Distance/length of one complete cycle |

What is the typical value of wavelength? | 0.15-1.8mm |

True or False; Wavelength can be adjusted by operator | False |

What is intensity? | Concentration of energy in a sound beam. Depends on both power in the beam and area over which the power is supplied. |

What are the typical values of intensity? | 0.01-300 W/cm^2 |

True or False; Intensity can be adjusted by the operator | True |

What is power? | The rate of energy transfer or rate at which work is performed. "Bigness of wave" |

What are the typical values of power? | 4-90 miliwatts |

True or False; Power can be adjusted by the operator | True |

What is amplitude? | The difference between the minimum value and the average value of the acoustic variable. "Bigness of wave" |

What are the typical values of amplitude? | 1 million-3 million pascals (1-3 MPa) |

Can amplitude be adjusted by the operator? | Yes |

What is frequency? | Number of cycles that occur in one second |

What are the typical values of frequency? | 2 MHz - 10MHz |

Can frequency be adjusted by the operator? | No |

What is a Period? | The time from the start of a cycle to the start of the next cycle |

What are the typical values of a Period? | 0.1-0.5 microseconds |

Can the Period be adjusted by the operator? | No |

What is propagation speed? | The distance that a sound wave travels though a medium in 1 second |

What is the typical value of propagation speed? | 1.54 x10^3 |

Can propagation speed be adjusted by the operator? | No |

True or False; Propagation speed decreases as frequency increases | False, unrelated |

True or Flase; Wavelength can be described as Long or Short | True |

Sound waves are; | Longitudinal and Mechanical |

What term describes the properties of the medium that affect the wave? | Acoustic Variables |

The area of highest density in a wave occurs where? | Compression |

Pressure is measured in what? | Pascal |

The inverse of frequency is what? | Period |

The alignment of positive and negative charges in a piezoelectric crystal is call what? | Dipole |

Where is the compression phase on a sine wave? | Crest |

Where is the rarefaction phase on a sine wave? | Trough |

True or False; Amplitude increases as it travels through a medium | False, decreases |

Electronic device for converting one form of energy into another is a what? | Transducer |

Absorption is the loss of ultrasound intensity in what form? | Heat |

Where odes the piezoelectric effect occur? | Transducer |