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Chemistry 121 Review

Chemistry 121 review for chemistry 122

Alkali Metals Group 1A; Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr
Alkaline Earth Metals Group 2A; Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra
Chalcogens Group 6A; O, S, Se, Te, Po
Halogens Group 7A; F, Cl, Br, I, At
Noble Gases (or rare gases) Group 8A; He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn
Molecular Formulas Chemical formulas that indicate the actual numbers and types of atoms in a molecule
Empirical Formulas Chemical formulas that give only the relative number of atoms of each type in a molecule
Ion A charged particle
An ion with a positive charge Cation
An ion with a negative charge Anion
Ionic compound A compound that contains both positively and negatively charged ions.
Procedure for calculating an empirical formula from percentage composition Mass % elements>Assume 100 g sample>Grams of each element>Use molar mass>Moles of each element>Calculate mole ratio>find empirical formula
Whole-number multiple Molecular weight/Empirical weight
Solvent The substance present in the greatest quantity
Solute The other substances in the solution
Electrolyte A substance whose aqueous solutions contain ions
Nonelectrolyte A substance that does not form ions in solution
Strong electrolytes Those solutes that exist in solution completely or nearly completely as ioiins
Weak electrolytes Those solutes that exist in solution mostly in the form of molecules with only a small fraction in the form of ions
Soluble Ionic Compounds NO3, CH3COO, Cl, Br, I, SO4
Insoluble Ionic Compounds S, CO3, PO4, OH
Acids Substances that ionize in aqueous solutions to form hydrogen ions
Bases Substances that accept H+ ions
Strong Acids Hydrochloric, Hydrobromic, Hydroiodic, Chloric, Perchloric, Nitric, Sulfuric
Strong Bases Group 1A metal hydroxides (LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH), Heavy group 2A metal hydroxides [Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2]
Salt Any ionic compound whose cation comes from a base and whose anion comes from an acid
Oxidation Loss of electrons by a substance
Reduction The gain of electrons by a substance
Oxidation number The actual charge for a monatomic ion
Concentration The amount of solute dissolved in a given quantity of solvent or quantity of solution
Molarity Moles Solute/Volume of solution in liters
energy The capacity to do work or to transfer heat
Work The energy used to cause an object with mass to move against a force
Heat The energy used to cause the temperature of an object to increase
Kinetic energy The energy of motion [(1/2)mv^2]
Potential energy The energy stored in chemical bonds (mass*force of gravity*height)
Force of gravity 9.8 m/s^2
Electrostatic potential energy The interactions between charged particles (KQ1Q2/d) K=Constant of porportionality Q=Electrical charges
Joule SI unit for energy 1J=1 kg-m2/s2
calorie The amount of energy to raise the temperature of 1g of water from 14.5 C to 15.5 C. 1 cal = 4.184 J
Equation for work W = F x d
First law of thermodynamics Energy is conserved
Internal energy The sum o fall the kinetic and potential energies of all its components.
Change in internal energy equation E(final)-E(initial)
Explanation of change in internal energy A positive value indicates a gain in energy from the surroundings. A negative value indicates a losing energy to the surroundings.
Equation for first law of thermodynamics Change in energy= q + w (q is given by the heat added to or liberated from the system), w is work done on the system
Endothermic When a system absorbs heat
Exothermic When a system releases heat
Enthalpy Accounts for heat flow in processes occurring at constant pressure when no forms of work are performed.
Calorimetry The measurement of heat flow
Heat capacity The temperature change experienced by an object when it absorbs a certain amount of heat
Molar heat capacity The heat capacity of one mole of a substance
Specific heat The heat capacity of one gram of a substance
Specific heat equation Specific heat= (quantity of heat transferred)/(grams of substance)*(temperature change)
Hess's Law
Created by: calebmo