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# Vocab Chapter 1-10

### Flashcards

Term | Definition | Chapters |
---|---|---|

Absolute Value | The distance the number is from zero on a number line. | Chapter 1-4 |

Additive Inverse | Two integers that are opposites. The sum of man integer and its additive inverse is zero. | Chapter 1-4 |

Opposites | Two integers are opposites if they are represented on the number line by points that are the same distance from zero, but on opposite sides of zero. The sum of two opposites is zero. | Chapter 1-4 |

Zero Pair | The result when one positive counter is paired with one negative counter. The value of a zero pair is 0. | Chapter 1-4 |

Bar Notation | In repeating decimals, the line or bar paced over the digits that repeat. | Chapter 1-4 |

Rational Numbers | The set of numbers that can be written in the form where a and b are integers. | Chapter 1-4 |

Repeating Decimal | The decimal form of a rational number. | Chapter 1-4 |

Terminating Decimal | A repeating decimal which has a repeating digit of 0. | Chapter 1-4 |

Additive Identity Property | The sum of any number and zero is the number. | Chapter 1-4 |

Algebra | A branch of mathematics that involves expressions with variables. | Chapter 1-4 |

Algebraic Expression | A combination of variables, numbers, expressions, and at least one operation. | Chapter 1-4 |

Associative Property | The way in which numbers are grouped does not change their sum or product. | Chapter 1-4 |

Coefficient | The numerical factor of a term that contains a variable. | Chapter 1-4 |

Commutative Property | The order in which two numbers are added or multiplied does not change their sum or product. | Chapter 1-4 |

Constant | A term that does not contain a variable. | Chapter 1-4 |

Distributive Property | To multiply a sum by a number, multiply each addend of the sum by the number outside the parentheses. For any number a,b, and c,a(b+c) = ab + ac and a(b-c) = ab - ac. | Chapter 1-4 |

Factor | To write a number as a product of its factors. | Chapter 1-4 |

Like Terms | Terms that contain the same variables raised to the same power. EX; 5x and 6x are like terms. | Chapter 1-4 |

Multiplicative Identity Property | The product of any number and one is the number. | Chapter 1-4 |

Multiplicative Property of Zero | The product of any number and zero is zero. | Chapter 1-4 |

Term | Each number in a sequence. | Chapter 1-4 |

Variable | A symbol, usually a letter, used to represent a number in mathematical expressions or sentences. | Chapter 1-4 |

Equation | A mathematical setence that contains an equals sign, =, stating that two quantities are equal. | Chapter 1-4 |

Solution | A replacement value for the variable in an open sentence. A value for the variable that makes an equation true. Ex; The solution 12 = x + 7 is 5. | Chapter 1-4 |

Complex Fractions | A fraction where a or b are fractions and b does not equal zero. | Chapter 5 (Ratios and Proportional Reasoning) |

Constant Rate of Change | The rate of change in a linear relationship. | Chapter 5 (Ratios and Proportional Reasoning) |

Coordinate Plane | A plane in which a horizontal number line and a vertical number line interact at their zero points. Also called a coordinate grid. | Chapter 5 (Ratios and Proportional Reasoning) |

Cross Products | The product of the numerator of one ratio and the denominator of the other ratio. The cross products of any proportion are equal. | Chapter 5 (Ratios and Proportional Reasoning) |

Direct Variation | The relationship between two variable quantities that have a constant ratio. | Chapter 5 (Ratios and Proportional Reasoning) |

Equivalent Ratios | Two ratios that have the same value. | Chapter 5 (Ratios and Proportional Reasoning) |

Nonproportional | The relationship between two ratios with a rate or ratio that is not constant. | Chapter 5 (Ratios and Proportional Reasoning) |

Proportional | The relationship between two ratios with a constant rate or ratio. | Chapter 5 (Ratios and Proportional Reasoning) |

Ordered Pair | A pair of numbers used to locate a point in the coordinate plane. An ordered pair is written in the form.(x-coordinate, y-coordinate). | Chapter 5 (Ratios and Proportional Reasoning) |

Origin | The point at which the x-axis and the y-axis intersect in a coordinate plane. The origin is at (0, 0). | Chapter 5 (Ratios and Proportional Reasoning) |

Quadrants | One of the four regions into which the two perpendicular number lines of the coordinate plane separate the plane. | Chapter 5 (Ratios and Proportional Reasoning) |

Rate | A ratio that compares two quantities with different kinds of units. | Chapter 5 (Ratios and Proportional Reasoning) |

Rate of Change | A rate that describes how one quantity changes in relation to another. A rate of change is usually expressed as a unit rate. | Chapter 5 (Ratios and Proportional Reasoning) |

Slope | The rate of change between any two points on a line. It is the ratio of vertical change to horizontal change. The slope tells how steep the line is. | Chapter 5 (Ratios and Proportional Reasoning) |

Unit Rate | A rate that is simplified so that it has a denominator of 1 unit. | Chapter 5 (Ratios and Proportional Reasoning) |

Unit Ratio | A unit rate where the denominator is one unit. | Chapter 5 (Ratios and Proportional Reasoning) |

X-Axis | The horizontal number line in a coordinate plane. | Chapter 5 (Ratios and Proportional Reasoning) |

X-Coordinate | The first number of an ordered pair. It corresponds to a number on the y-axis. | Chapter 5 (Ratios and Proportional Reasoning) |

Y-Axis | The vertical number line in a coordinate plane. | Chapter 5 (Ratios and Proportional Reasoning) |

Y-Coordinate | The second number of an ordered pair. It corresponds to a number on the y-axis. | Chapter 5 (Ratios and Proportional Reasoning) |

Discount | The amount by which the regular price of an item is reduced. | Chapter 6(Percent) |

Gratuity | Also known as a tip. It is a small amount of money in return for a service. | Chapter 6(Percent) |

Markdown | An amount by which the regular price of an item is reduced. | Chapter 6(Percent) |

Markup | The amount the price of an item is increased above the price the store paid for the item. | Chapter 6(Percent) |

Percent Error | A ratio that compares the inaccuracy of an estimate to the actual amount. | Chapter 6(Percent) |

Percent of Change | A ratio that compares the change in a quantity to the original amount. | Chapter 6(Percent) |

Percent of Decrease | A negative percent of change. | Chapter 6(Percent) |

Percent of Increase | A positive percent of change. | Chapter 6(Percent) |

Percent Proportion | One ratio or fraction that compares part of a quantity to the whole quantity. The other ratio is the equivalent percent written as a fraction with a denominator of 100. | Chapter 6(Percent) |

Principal | The amount of money deposited or borrowed. | Chapter 6(Percent) |

Sales Tax | An additional amount of money charged on items that people buy. | Chapter 6(Percent) |

Scale Drawing | A drawing that is used to represent objects that are to large or too small to be drawn at actual size. | Chapter 6(Percent) |

Scale Model | A model used to represent objects that are to large or too small to be built at actual size. | Chapter 6(Percent) |

Scale | The scale that gives the ratio that compares the measurements of a drawing or model to the measurements of the real objects. | Chapter 6(Percent) |

Selling Price | The amount the customer pays for an item. | Chapter 6(Percent) |

Simple Interest | The amount paid or earned for the use of money. The formula for simple interest is I = prt. | Chapter 6(Percent) |

Tip | Also known as a gratuity, it is a small amount of money in return for a service. | Chapter 6(Percent) |

Biased Sample | A sample drawn in such a way that one or more parts of the population are favored over others. | Chapter 7(Statistics) |

Convenience Sample | A sample which consists of members of a population that bare easily accessed. | Chapter 7(Statistics) |

Population | The entire group of items or individuals from which the samples under consideration are taken. | Chapter 7(Statistics) |

Sample | A randomly selected group chosen for the purpose of collecting data. | Chapter 7(Statistics) |

Simple Random Sample | An unbiased sample where each item or person in the population is as likely to be chosen as any other. | Chapter 7(Statistics) |

Statistics | The study of collecting, organizing, and interpreting data. | Chapter 7(Statistics) |

Survey | A question or set of questions designed to collect data about a specific group of people, or population. | Chapter 7(Statistics) |

Systematic Random Sample | A sample where the items people are selected according to a specific time or item interval. | Chapter 7(Statistics) |

Unbiased Sample | A sample representative of the entire population. | Chapter 7(Statistics) |

Voluntary Response Sample | A sample which involves only those who want to participate In the sampling. | Chapter 7(Statistics) |

Acute Angle | An angle with a measure greater than 0 degrees and less than 90 degrees. | Chapter 8(Geometric Figures) |

Acute Triangle | A triangle having three acute angles. | Chapter 8(Geometric Figures) |

Adjacent Angles | Angles that have the same vertex, share a common side, and do not overlap. | Chapter 8(Geometric Figures) |

Base | In a power, the number used as a factor. In 10;3 cubed, the base is 10. That is, 10 cubed 3 = 10 x 10 x 10. | Chapter 8(Geometric Figures) |

Complementary Angles | Two angles are complementary if the sum of their measures is 90 degrees. | Chapter 8(Geometric Figures) |

Congruent | Having the same measure. | Chapter 8(Geometric Figures) |

Cross Section | The cross section of a solid and a plane. | Chapter 8(Geometric Figures) |

Edge | The line segment where two faces of a polyhedron intersect. | Chapter 8(Geometric Figures) |

Equilateral Triangles | A triangle having three congruent sides. | Chapter 8(Geometric Figures) |

Face | A flat surface of a polyhedron. | Chapter 8(Geometric Figures) |

Isosceles Triangle | A triangle having at least two congruent sides. | Chapter 8(Geometric Figures) |

Obtuse Angle | Any angle that measures greater than 90 degrees but less than 180 degrees. | Chapter 8(Geometric Figures) |

Obtuse Triangle | A triangle having one obtuse angle. | Chapter 8(Geometric Figures) |

Polyhedron | A three-dimensional figure with faces that are polygons. | Chapter 8(Geometric Figures) |

Prism | A polyhedron with two parallel congruent faces called bases. | Chapter 8(Geometric Figures) |

Pyramid | A polyhedron with one base that is a polygon and three or more triangular faces that meet at a common vertex. | Chapter 8(Geometric Figures) |

Right Angle | An angle that measures exactly 90 degrees. | Chapter 8(Geometric Figures) |

Right Triangle | A triangle having one right angle. | Chapter 8(Geometric Figures) |

Scalene Triangle | A triangle having no congruent sides. | Chapter 8(Geometric Figures) |

Straight Angle | An angle that measures exactly 180 degrees. | Chapter 8(Geometric Figures) |

Supplementary Angles | Two angles are supplementary if the sum of their measures is 180 degrees. | Chapter 8(Geometric Figures) |

Triangle | A figure with three sides and three angles. | Chapter 8(Geometric Figures) |

Vertex | The point at the tip of a cone. | Chapter 8(Geometric Figures) |

Vertical Angles | Opposite angles formed by the intersection of two lines. Vertical Angles are congruent. | Chapter 8(Geometric Figures) |

Center | The point from which all points on circle are the same distance. | Chapter 9(Measure Figures) |

Circle | The set of all points in a plane that are the same distance from a given point. | Chapter 9(Measure Figures) |

Circumference | The distance around a circle. | Chapter 9(Measure Figures) |

Composite Figures | A figure that is made up of two or more three-dimensional figures. | Chapter 9(Measure Figures) |

Diameter | The distance across a circle through its center. | Chapter 9(Measure Figures) |

Pi | The ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter. The Greek letter pi represents this number. The value of pi is 3.1415926........ Approximations for pi is 3.14. | Chapter 9(Measure Figures) |

Radius | The distance from the center of a circle to any point on the circle. | Chapter 9(Measure Figures) |

Semicircle | Half of a circle. The formula for the area of a semicircle is A=1/2 pi r squared. | Chapter 9(Measure Figures) |

Slant Height | The height of each lateral face. | Chapter 9(Measure Figures) |

Surface Area | The sum of the areas of all the surfaces of a three-dimensional figures. | Chapter 9(Measure Figures) |

Volume | The number of cubic units needed to fill the space occupied by a solid. | Chapter 9(Measure Figures) |

Compound Events | An event consisting of two or more simple events. | Chapter 10(Probability) |

Dependent Events | Two or more events in which the outcome of one event affects the outcome of the other events. | Chapter 10(Probability) |

Experimental Probability | An estimated probability based on the relative frequency of positive outcomes occurring during an experiment. It is based on what actually occurred during such an experiment. | Chapter 10(Probability) |

Fair | Each player has an equally likely chance of winning. | Chapter 10(Probability) |

Fundamental Counting Principle | Uses multiplication of the number of ways each event in an experiment can occur to find the number of possible outcomes in a sample space. | Chapter 10(Probability) |

Independent Events | Two or more events in which the outcome of one event does not affect the outcome of the other events. | Chapter 10(Probability) |

Outcome | Any one of the possible results of an action. For example, 4 is an outcome when a number cube is rolled. | Chapter 10(Probability) |

Permutation | An arrangement, or listing, of objects in which order is important. | Chapter 10(Probability) |

Probability | The chance that some event will happen. It is the ratio of the number of favorable outcomes to the number of possible outcomes. | Chapter 10(Probability) |

Random | Outcomes occur at random if each outcome occurs by chance. For example, rolling a number on a number cube occurs at random. | Chapter 10(Probability) |

Sample Space | The set of all possible outcomes of a probability experiment. | Chapter 10(Probability) |

Simple Event | One outcome or a collection of outcomes. | Chapter 10(Probability) |

Simulation | An experiment that is designed to model the action in a given situation. | Chapter 10(Probability) |

Theoretical Probability | The ratio of the number of ways an event can occur to the number of possible outcomes. It is based on what should happen when conducting a probability experiment. | Chapter 10(Probability) |

Tree Diagram | A diagram used to show the sample space. | Chapter 10(Probability) |

Unfair | There is not a chance of each player being equally likely to win. | Chapter 10(Probability) |

Integer | Any number from the set {...,-4, -3, -2, -1, 0,1, 2, 3, 4,...}, where... means continues without end. | Chapter 1-4 |