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LCCC Chem 2 Final

LCCC Mr. Hiner's Chem 2 Final

Intermolecular Forces Fixed- keeps shape when placed in a container, Indefinite- takes the shape of the container
Solid Intermolecular Forces very strong forces, particles are packed close together and can only vibrate and are incompressible
Liquid Intermolecular Forces particles are packed close together but have the ability to move from place to place, and are incompressible
Gas Intermolecular Forces cohesive, complete freedom of motion and aren't held together, but flow and no shape and can't be compressed
State of Matter Depends on: The amount of kinetic energy the particles possess, the strength of attraction between molecules
Gas Kinetic Energy their kinetic energy overcomes the attractive forces between molecules
Forces of Attraction the particles are attracted to each other by electrostatic forces (strength varies, depends on kinds of particles)
Specific Heat (c) amount of energy needed to raise 1 gram of water 1 degree Celcius
Q=mc(delta T) heating of a substance
Q=mQf Heat of fusion(Qf) Heat of fusion= 79.7cal/gm or 334kJ/kg
Q=mQvap Heat of Vaporization(Qvap) Heat of Vaporization=539 cal/gm or 2260kJ/kg
Heating Water 100 cal/gm or 418.6 kJ/kg to heat water 0 degrees --> 100 degrees
Intermolecular Attractions attractive forces between opposite charges, H bonding especially strong
London Dispersion Forces nonpolar molecules-very weak
Dipole-Dipole polar molecules, strong alignment
H-bonding O-H, N-H, F-H
Ion-Dipole Forces In a mixture, ions from an ionic compound are attracted to the dipole in polar molecules.
Viscosity resistance of a liquid to flow, raising temperature reduces viscosity
Capillary Action is the ability of a liquid to flow up a thin tube
Super Critical Fluid A point at which you get one state (liquid and gas blur)
Boiling Point the temperature at which the vapor pressure equals external atmosphere pressure
Dynamic Equilibrium rate of evaporation=rate of condensation
Heat of Vaporization the amount of heat energy required to vaporize one mole of the liquid
Vapor Pressure and Temperature as the temperature increases, the vapor pressure increases, increasing the temperature increases number of molecules escaping a liquid
Clausis-Clapeyron Equation ln(P2/P1)=(Hvap/R)((1/T1)-(1/T2))
Crystalline Solids particles are in highly ordered arrangements
Amorphous Solids no particular order in the arrangement of particles
Ionic Crystals ions pack themselves so as to maximize the attractions and minimize repulsions
Homogeneous Solutions A mixture of two or more substances
Solvent majority component of a solution
Solute minority component of a solution
Soluble when a solute dissolves in a solvent
Entropy measure of randomness
Solubility the maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent (temperature dependent)
Lattice Energy attractive forces between ions
Saturated Solutions the solvent holds as much solute as is possible at that temperature
Unsaturated Solutions less solute than can dissolve in the solvent at that temperature is dissolved in the solvent
Henry's Law Sg=kPg, Sg=solubility of gas, k=Henry's Law Constant, Pg=partial pressure of gas above liquid, (S1/P1)=(S2/P2)
Concentration amount of solute in a given amount of solution
Part of a whole amount of solute in a given amount of solution %=(amount of solute/ amount of solution) x 100
Molarity M=(mass of solute)/((Molar Mass)(V of solution in liters))
Molality m=(moles of solute)/(mass of solvent in kilograms)
Mole Fraction Xa=moles of solute/total number of moles
Density D=M/V
Colligative Properties vapor pressure of a solvent above a solution is lower than the vapor pressure of the pure solvent
Raoult's Law P solvent in solution= X solvent (pressure of gas at standard conditions)
Boiling Point Elevation Delta Tb=Kb(m) Kb=molal boiling point Delta Tb=added to the normal boiling point
Freezing Point Elevation Delta Tf=Kf(m)
Van't Hoff Effect Delta Tf=Kf(mi) mi=number of particles in an electrolyte
Osmosis is the flow of solvent from a solution of low concentration into a solution of high concentration
Semipermeable Membrane allows solvent to flow through it, but not solute
Osmotic Pressure amount of pressure needed to keep osmotic flow from taking place, II=MRT
Isotonic exerts the same osmotic pressure as body fluids such as red blood cells (RBCs)
Hypertonic has a lower solute concentration than RBCs, water goes out of cells by osmosis
Hypotonic has higher solute concentration than RBCs, water goes out of cells by osmosis
Colloids have medium-size particles, cannot be filtered, can be seperated by semipermeable membrane
Suspensions very large particles, settle out, can be filtered, must be stirred to stay suspended
Soaps Ionic heads (hydrophilic), nonpolar tails (hydrophobic)
Reaction Rate the speed of a chemical reaction
Rate how much a quantity changes in a given period of time Rate=change of something/delta t
Rate Equation Rate=-1/a delta A/delta t=etc.
Polarimetry measures the change in the degree of rotation of plane polarized light caused by one of the components over time
Spectrophotometry this measures the amount of light of a particular wavelength absorbed by one component over time
Catalyst affect speed of reaction without being consumed
The Rate Law Rate=k[A]^n
Zero Order rate is always the same/don't change rate
First Order rate is directly proportional to reactant concentration
Second Order rate is directly proportional to the square of the reactant concentrations/ double concentration=quadruple the rate
Integrated Rate Laws zero=line, drop down, first=straight sloped line, slight bow, Second=bent line, big bow
Zeroth Order [A]=-kt+[A]initial
First Order Half Life 0.693/rate
First Order ln([At]/[Ao])=-kt
Second Order 1/[A]=kt+(1/[A]initial)
Second Order Half Life 1/k[Ao]
Activation Energy (Ea) minimum amount of energy required for reaction
Activation Energy Equation ln(k2/k1)=(Ea/R)((1/T1)-(1/T2))
Mechanism sequence of events that are a road map of bond breaking and making
Le Chatelier's Principle If a system at equilibrium is disturbed by a change in temperature, pressure, or the concentration of one of the components it will shift its equilibrium to counteract the effect of disturbance
Arrhenius Acid a substance that when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydrogen ions
Arrhenius Base a substance that when dissolved in water, increasing the concentration of hydroxide ions
Bronsted-Lowry acid=proton donor/must have a removable protein, base=proton acceptor/must have pair of nonbonding electrons
Lewis Acid species that can form a covalent bond by accepting an electron pair
Lewis Base an electron pair donator
Acids strong acids completely dissociate, weak acids don't
Kw Kw=Ka x Kb, Kw=1.0x10^-14
Equilibrium Expression Kc=[H3O+][OH-]
pH pH=-log[H3O+] pH=pKa+log([base]/[acid])
pOH pOH=-log[OH-]
pKa pKa=-log[Ka]
Salt Anions bases that can react with water in a hydrolysis reaction to form OH- and the conjugate acid
Salt Cations with acidic protons will lower the pH of a solution, most metal cations when hydrated in solution also lower the pH
Buffers resist changes in pH when an acid or base is added
Equivalence Point where stiochiometric equality
End Point where indicator changes color and allows you to end titration
Common-Ion Effect If one of the ions in a solution equilibrium is already dissolved in the solution, the equilibrium will shift to the left and the solubility of the salt will decrease
First Law of Thermodynamics Energy cannot be created nor destroyed. Therefore total energy of the universe is a constant.
Spontaneous Processes are those that can proceed without any outside intervention, processes spontaneous forward are not reverse
Irreversible Processes cannot be undone by exactly reversing the change to the system
Entropy Equation S=entropy Delta S=Sfinal-Sinitial S-klogW Delta S= Delta Hvap/T
Second Law of Thermodynamics Entropy of universe increases for spontaneous processes, but doesn't change for reversible processes
Third Law of Thermodynamics The entropy of a pure crystalline substance at absolute zero is 0
Gibb's Free Energy Delta G= Delta H- T Delta S
Voltaic Cells In spontaneous oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions, electrons are transferred and energy is released
Electromotive Force (emf) the potential difference between the anode and cathode in a cell Wmax=-nFEcell
Oxidizing and Reducing Agents The strongest oxidizers have the most positive reduction potentials and vice versa
Free Energy Delta G=-nFE Ecell=(0.592)logK/n E=E(circle)-(0.0592/n)logQ
Radioactive Decays Alpha, Beta, Gamma,Electron Capture (K-capture), Positron Emmission
Alpha Decay mass number decrease by 4, atomic number decrease by 2
Beta Decay mass number stays the same, atomic number increase by 1
Positron Emmission mass number stays the same, atomic number decrease by 1
Gamma Decay gives off m (meta) in decay
Electron Capture (K-Capture) proton meets electron to make neutron
Nuclear Kinetics Nuclear transmutation is a first order process
Nuclear Rate Rate=kNt Nt=number of radionuclei at any time
Curie 1 Curie=3.7x10^10 nuclei/s
Created by: 14diltzd