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C2.5 Glossary

Salts and Electrolysis Glossary

Acid A sour substance which can attack metal, clothing or skin. The chemical opposite of an alkali. When dissolved in water, its solution has a pH number of less than 7. Acids are proton (H+ ion) donors.
Alkali Its solution has a pH of more than 7.
Aluminium A low density, corrosion resistant, metal used in many alloys including those used in the aircraft industry.
Aqueous Solution The mixture made by adding a soluble substance to water.
Base The oxide, hydroxide or carbonate of a metal that will react with an acid, forming a salt as one of the products. (If the base dissolves in water it is called and alkali). Bases are proton (H+ ion) acceptors.
Brine A solution of sodium chloride in water.
Electrolysis The breakdown of a substance containing ions by electricity.
Electrolyte A liquid, containing free-moving ions, that is broken down by electricity in the process of electrolysis.
Half Equation An equation that describes reduction (gain of electrons) or oxidation (loss of electrons), such as the reactions that take place at the electrodes during electrolysis.
Neutral A solution with a pH value of 7 which is neither acidic nor alkaline. Alternatively, something that carries no overall electronic charge- neither positively or negatively charged.
Neutralisation The chemical reaction of an acid with a base in which they cancel each other out, forming a salt and water. If the base is a carbonate or hydrogencarbonate, carbon dioxide is also produced in the reaction.
Oxidation The reaction when oxygen is added to a substance (or when electrons are lost).
Oxidised A reaction when oxygen is added to a substance (or when electrons are lost).
pH Scale A number which shows how strongly acidic or alkaline a solution is. Acids have a pH value of less than 7 (pH 1 is strongly acidic). Alkalis have a pH value above 7 (pH 14 is strongly alkaline). A neutral liquid has a pH value of 7.
Reduction A reaction in which oxygen is removed (or electrons are gained).
Salt A compound formed when some or all of the hydrogen in an acid is replaced by a metal ( or by an ammonium ion). For example, potassium nitrate KNO3 (from nitric acid)
Universal Indicator A mixture of indicators which can change through a range of colours depending on the pH of the solution. Its colour is matched to a pH number using a pH scale. It shows how strongly acidic or alkaline liquids and solutions are.
Created by: ChosenHill