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C2.3 Glossary

How Much? Glossary

Atomic Number The number of protons (which equals the number of electrons) in an atom. It is sometimes called the proton number.
Empirical Formula The simplest ratio of elements in a compound.
Isotope Atom that has the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons. i.e. the same atomic number but a different mass number.
Mass Number The number of protons plus the number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
Mole The amount of substance in the relative atomic or formula mass of a substance in grams.
Molecular Formula The chemical formula that shows the actual numbers of atoms in a particular molecule (e.g. C2H4).
Percentage Yield The actual mass of product collected in a reaction divided by the maximum mass that could have been formed in theory, multiplied by 100. (i.e. (actual yield/theoretical yield) x 100)
Relative Atomic Mass,Ar The average mass of the atoms of an element compared to carbon-12 (which is given the mass of exactly 12). The average mass must take into account the proportions of the naturally occurring isotopes of the element.
Relative Formula Mass, Mr The total of the relative atomic masses, added up in the ration shown in the chemical formula, of a substance.
Reversible Reaction A reaction in which the products can re-form the reactants.
Symbol Equation A balanced chemical equation showing the formula for each reactant and product in the reaction e.g. H2 + Cl2 = 2HCl
Word Equation A way of describing what happened in a chemical reaction by showing the names of all the reactants and products they form.
Chromatography The process by which small amounts of dissolved substances are separated by running a solvent along a material such as absorbent paper.
Gas Chromatography The process of separating the components in a mixture by passing the vapours through a column and detecting them as they leave the column at different times.
Equilibrium The point in a reversible reaction in which the forward and backward rates of reaction are the same. Therefore, the amount of substances present in the reacting mixture remain constant.
Mass Spectrometer A machine that can be used to analyse small amounts of a substance to identify it and to find its relative molecular mass.
Molecular Ion Peak The peak on the mass spectrum of a substance which tells us the relative molecular mass of the substance. The peak is produced by the heaviest positive ion shown on the mass spectrum.
Created by: ChosenHill



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