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C1.4 & 1.5 Glossary

Crude Oil, Fuels, Products from Oil Glossary

Alkane Saturated hydrocarbon with the general formula CnH(2n+2) . E.g. methane, ethane and propane.
Alkene Unsaturated hydrocarbon which contains a C-C double bond. Its general formula is CnH2n. e.g. ethane, C2H4.
Biodiesel Fuel made from animal or plant products.
Biofuel Fuel made from animal or plant products.
Cracking The process used in the oil industry to break down large hydrocarbons into smaller, more useful ones. This occurs when the hydrocarbon vapour is either is passed over a hot catalyst or mixed with steam and heated to a high temperature.
Distillation Separation of a liquid from a mixture by evaporation then condensation.
Ethene An alkene with the formula C2H4.
Fermentation The reaction in which enzymes in yeast turn sugar into ethanol and carbon dioxide.
Fraction Hydrocarbons with similar boiling points separated from crude oil.
Fractional Distillation A way to separate liquids from a mixture of liquids by boiling off the substances at different temperatures, then condensing and collecting the liquids.
Global Dimming The reflection of sunlight by tiny solid particles in the air.
Global Warming The increasing of the average temperature of the Earth.
Hydration A reaction in which water (H2O) is chemically added to a compound.
Hydrocarbon A compound containing only hydrogen and carbon.
Monomers Small reactive molecules that react together in repeating sequences to form a very large molecule ( a polymer).
Polymer A substance made from very large molecules made up of many repeating units. (e.g. poly(ethane).
Polymerisation The reaction of monomers to make a polymer.
Propene An alkene with the formula C3H6.
Saturated Hydrocarbon Describes a hydrocarbon that contains as many hydrogens as possible in each molecule.
Smart Polymer Polymers that change in response to changes in their environment.
Thermosetting Polymer Polymer that can form extensive cross-linking between chains, resulting in rigid materials which are heat resistant.
Thermosoftening Polymers Polymer that forms plastics which can be softened by heat, then remoulded into different shapes as they cool down and set.
Unsaturated Hydrocarbon A hydrocarbon whose molecules contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond.
Created by: ChosenHill