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AQA C1 Glossary

Key words for C1

Atom The smallest part of an element that can still be recognised as an element.
Atomic Number The number of protons (which equals the number of electrons) in an atom. It is sometimes called the proton number.
Compound A substance made when two or more elements are chemically bonded together. For example water, H2O, is a compound made from hydrogen and oxygen.
Covalent Bond The attraction between two atoms that share one, or more, pairs of electrons.
Covalent Bonding The attraction between two atoms that share one, or more, pairs of electrons.
Delocalised Electron Bonding electron that is no longer associated with any one particular atom.
Dot and Cross Diagram A drawing to show the arrangement of the outer shell electrons only of the atoms or ions in a substance.
Double Bond A covalent bond made by the sharing of two pairs of electrons.
Electron A tiny particle with a negative charge. Electrons orbit the nucleus in atoms or ions.
Electronic Structure A set of numbers to show the arrangement of electrons in their shells or energy levels. E.g. the electronic structure of a potassium atom is 2,8,8,1.
Element A substance made up of only one type of atom. An element can not be broken down chemically into any simpler substance.
Energy Level (or Shell) An area in an atom, around its nucleus, where the electrons are found.
Shell (or Energy Level) An area in an atom, around its nucleus, where the electrons are found.
Gas A state of matter.
Inert Unreactive.
Ion A charged particle formed by the loss or gain of electrons.
Ionic Bond The electrostatic force of attraction between positively and negatively charged ions.
Ionic Bonding The electrostatic force of attraction between positively and negatively charged ions.
Liquid A state of matter.
Mass Number The number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
Mixture When some elements or compounds are mixed together and intermingle but do not react together. (i.e. no new substance is made). A mixture is not a pure substance.
Molecule A group of atoms bonded together, e.g. PCl3.
Neutron A dense particle found in the nucleus of an atom. It is electrically neutral, carrying no charge.
Nucleus ( of an atom) The very small and dense central part of an atom which contains protons and neutrons.
Product A substance made as a result of a chemical reaction.
Proton A tiny positive particle found in the nucleus of an atom.
Reactant A substance we start with before a chemical reaction takes place.
Solid A state of matter.
State Symbol The abbreviations used in balanced symbol equations to show to show if reactants or products are solids (s), liquids (l), gases (g) or dissolved in water (aq)
Symbol Equation A balanced chemical equation showing the formula of each reactant and product in the reaction. E.g. H2 + Cl2 = 2HCl
Calcium carbonate which rock does it make up? What is it’s formula? The main compound found in limestone. It is a white solid whose chemical formula is CaCO3.
Calcium hydroxide-How is it made? What is it used for? A white solid made by reacting calcium oxide with water. It is used as a cheap alkali in industry.
Calcium oxide-How is it made?What is it’s chemical fomula? A white solid made by heating limestone strongly e.g. in a lime kiln.Chemical formula is CaO
What is cement? A building material made by heating limestone and clay.
What is concrete? A building material made by mixing cement, sand and aggregate (crushed rock) with water.
What is the test for carbon dioxide gas? Add limewater and it turns milky/cloudy/white.
What is limewater? The common name for calcium hydroxide solution- used as a test for carbon dioxide gas.
What is mortar and how is it made? A building material used to bind bricks together. It is made by mixing cement and sand with water.
What is thermal decomposition? The breakdown of a compound by heat.
The process by which limestone is turned in to calcium oxide is called……? Thermal decomposition.
What is an alloy? A mixture of metals (and sometimes non-metals) e.g. Brass is a mixture of copper and zinc.
What is brass? An alloy of copper and zinc.
Describe the properties of aluminium and what it is use for. A low density, corrosion resistant metal use in many alloys, including those used in the aircraft industry.
What is bioleaching? The process of extracting metals from low grade ores using micro-organisms.
What is a blast furnace used for? The blast furnace is the huge reaction vessel used in industry to remove iron from it’s ore.
What is carbon steel? Alloy of iron containing small, controlled amounts, of carbon.
What is cast iron? The impure iron taken directly from the blast furnace.
What is a copper rich ore? A rock that contains a high proportion of a copper compound.
What is a high-alloy steel? An expensive alloy of iron mixed with relatively high proportions of other metals e.g. stainless steel which contains nickel and chromium along with the iron.
What is a low-alloy steel? An alloy of iron containing small amounts (1-5%) of other metals.
What is an ore? A rock which contains enough metal to make it economically viable to extract the metal.
What is oxidation? A reaction when oxygen is added to a substance (or electrons are lost)
What is phytomining? The process of extracting metals from low grade ores using plants.
What is the reactivity series? A list of elements in order of their reactivity. The most reactive element is put at the top of the list.
What is the process by which one element takes the place of another, less reactive element? Displacment/Displace.
What is meant by “displace”? When one element takes the place of another in a compound. For example iron + copper sulphate = iron sulphate + copper.
What is reduction? A reaction in which oxygen is removed (or electrons gained).
What is a shape metal alloy? A mixture of metals which responds to changes in temperature?
What is smelting? Heating a metal ore in order to extract its metal.
What is stainless steel? A chromium/ nickel alloy of iron which does not rust.
What is steel? An alloy of iron with small amounts of carbon or other metals, such as nickel or chromium, added.
What is titanium? A shiny, corrosion resistant, metal used to make alloys.
Alkane Saturated hydrocarbon with the general formula CnH(2n+2) . E.g. methane, ethane and propane.
Alkene Unsaturated hydrocarbon which contains a C-C double bond. Its general formula is CnH2n. e.g. ethane, C2H4.
Biodiesel Fuel made from animal or plant products.
Biofuel Fuel made from animal or plant products.
Cracking The process used in the oil industry to break down large hydrocarbons into smaller, more useful ones. This occurs when the hydrocarbon vapour is either is passed over a hot catalyst or mixed with steam and heated to a high temperature.
Distillation Separation of a liquid from a mixture by evaporation then condensation.
Ethene An alkene with the formula C2H4.
Fermentation The reaction in which enzymes in yeast turn sugar into ethanol and carbon dioxide.
Fraction Hydrocarbons with similar boiling points separated from crude oil.
Fractional Distillation A way to separate liquids from a mixture of liquids by boiling off the substances at different temperatures, then condensing and collecting the liquids.
Global Dimming The reflection of sunlight by tiny solid particles in the air.
Global Warming The increasing of the average temperature of the Earth.
Hydration A reaction in which water (H2O) is chemically added to a compound.
Hydrocarbon A compound containing only hydrogen and carbon.
Monomers Small reactive molecules that react together in repeating sequences to form a very large molecule ( a polymer).
Polymer A substance made from very large molecules made up of many repeating units. (e.g. poly(ethane).
Polymerisation The reaction of monomers to make a polymer.
Propene An alkene with the formula C3H6.
Saturated Hydrocarbon Describes a hydrocarbon that contains as many hydrogens as possible in each molecule.
Smart Polymer Polymers that change in response to changes in their environment.
Thermosetting Polymer Polymer that can form extensive cross-linking between chains, resulting in rigid materials which are heat resistant.
Thermosoftening Polymers Polymer that forms plastics which can be softened by heat, then remoulded into different shapes as they cool down and set.
Unsaturated Hydrocarbon A hydrocarbon whose molecules contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond.
E-number Number assigned to a food additive that has been approved for use in Europe. It is displayed on food packaging.
Emulsifier A substance which helps keep immiscible liquids (e.g. oil and water) mixed so that they do not separate out into layers.
Emulsion A mixture of liquids that do not dissolve in each other.
Food Additive A substance added to a food in order to preserve it or to improve its taste, texture or appearance.
Hydrogenated Oil Oil which has had hydrogen added to it to reduce its degree of saturation in the hardening process to make margarine.
Hydrophilic The water loving part of an emulsifier molecule.
Hydrophobic The water-hating hydrocarbon part of an emulsifier molecule.
Unsaturated Oil Plant oil whose molecules contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond.
Vegetable Oil Oil extracted from plants.
Atmosphere The relatively thin layer of gases that surround planet Earth.
Convection Currents The circular motion of matter caused by heating in fluids.
Core The centre of the Earth.
Crust The outer solid layer of the Earth.
Mantle The layer of the Earth between its crust and its core.
Tectonic Plates The huge slabs of rock that make up the Earth’s crust and top part of its mantle.
Wind Moving Air.
Created by: ChosenHill