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Carnegie chemistry

What is the structure of an atom? Protons and neutrons, electron’s moves around outer most field, nucleus creates an energy field.
What is the “Valance Shell” The outer energy shell- determines how the atom will interact with others, the electrons have no mass
What is an element? A pure substance composed of atoms of only one kind
What are the chemical symbols for? Oxygen (O) Nitrogen (N) Carbon (C) Hydrogen (H) Potassium (K) Calcium (Ca)
What is a ion, cation and anion and how they are created? Ion:atoms or molecules that carry an electrical charge, gained or lost electrons Cation:an atom that loses an electron and becomes positively charged Anion:an atom that gains an electron and becomes negatively charged
What is a molecule? 2 or more atoms that share electrons that are covalently bonded, can be the same or different O2= oxygen + oxygen covalently bonded
What is a free radical? ions or molecules with unpaired electrons in the valance shells (they steel electrons). stress cause free radicals, pulling off electrons from neighboring atoms.
What is a compound? Substance made of 2 or more different elements, regardless of the type of bond joining them.
What are 3 type of chemical bonds and some examples of each? Ionic-weakest bond and easily broken. Ex: NaCL and HCL breaks down into H- Covalent: Strongest bond-hooked together by sharing molecule. Slight polar or non polar, share 1 or more pair of electrons.
Ht are 3 type of chemical bonds and some examples of each? Hydrogen: H2O (water DNA) polar covalent bond that contain hydrogen which will be a slight positive which will attract slight negative polar molecule. More easily broken than covalent bond.
What is Dissociation? dissipates in water
What are the chemical symbols for: carbon dioxide,bicarbonate,carbonic acid, hydrogen,oxygen Carbon dioxide (CO2) Bicarbonate ion (HCO3) base Carbonic acid (H2CO3) Hydrogen ion (H+) Oxygen molecule (O2)
What is activation energy? the amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction. Enzymes lower activation energy
What is an electrolyte? inorganic compound ions that conduct electrical current in solution. dissociates in water into ions that will. Ex: Saline
What does hydrophobic mean? Nonpolar molecules (organic molecules with covalent bonds) no (-) or (+) end, not attracted to water. Ex: phospholipids in cell membrane, animal fats, vegetable oil
What does hydrophilic mean? Organic molecules that contain in polar covalent bonds attract water molecules. Ex: salts and sugars, phosphate heads, dissolves easily in water
What is the pH scale and what do the numbers mean? 7- neutral, below 7-acidic, above 7- basic. Logarithmic, blood pH is 7.35-7.45, less than 7.35 is acidosis. 6= 10x more acidic than 7, below 7=more hydrogen ion than OH, over 7= more OH and less H
What is an acid, base, and salt and what they break down into? Acid:any solute that dissociates in solution and releases hydrogen ions (H+) and something else negative (Acids are proton donors) Ex: HCL hydrogen ions and some. Cation- H+, breaks apart into 1 or more H+ ions anions Base:Any solute that removes H+ (hydr
What is a buffer? Compounds that stabilize pH (doesn’t remove it from your body, just binds and puts it somewhere else it buys time) Proteins and phosphates can act as buffers. Prevents major changes to the pH, removes from solution but not the body. Ex: albumin
What is glycogen? Where is it stored? storage form of glucose, and stored in liver and muscles skeletal
What is it called when glycogen is broken down into glucose? Glycogenolysis
What hormone stimulates the formation of the breakdown of glucose? Insulin
What is a triglyceride made of and what is it function? glycerol + 3 fatty acids hydrolysis breaks the glycosides in to fatty acids and glycerol purpose energy source, insulation and protection. Conserve body heat temp, provides cushioning around organs.
Why are saturated fatty acids stiffer than unsaturated fats? because every Carbon atom is hooked to a hydrogen atom, this makes fats stiff, unsaturated means blank spots allowing for bending
What are the functions of steroids? Makes hormone, maintains cell membrane. Ex: estrogen, testosterone, cortazol. use to make bile salts
What is cholesterol? A steroid, important, type of lipid, most made in the liver
What are the 2 ways the body can obtain cholesterol? by absorption from animal products in the diet. by synthesis within the body made in livers
What is the construction of a phospholipids including the hydrophilic and hydrophobic component? Phosphate head is polar and fatty acid tails are non polar. The negative polar ends repels each other which causes fatty acid tails to point to each other (hydrophobic). Neg polar heads are hydrophobic repels water and fatty acids are hydrophilic loves wa
What are the basic functions of proteins? support (structure) Movement (contractile proteins inside cell) Transport (lipids, hormones, gases) Buffering Metabolic regulation (enzymes) Coordination and control (Protein hormones) Defense (ammune system, antibodies-clotting)
What are the building blocks of proteins? Amino acids- contain an amino group + a carboxyl group, carbon atom, hydrogen atom, and side chain
What are peptide bonds and where are they found? a chemical bond formed between two molecules. covalent bonds that hold amino acids together-hydrogen holds amino acids together
What is denaturation and what causes it? A change in tertiary or quartemary structure that makes the enzyme nonfictional. Temperature and pH values outside the normal range Ex: cooking an egg- when protein loses it shape permanently: way to hot or acidic
What is an enzyme? Proteins made by the body ,promotes chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy requirements also called catalysts, works on specific sub straights
What is a substrate? Reactants in enzymatic reactions
What is a product? result of enzymatic reactions-puts a product together or breaks it
What is a cofactor or coenzyme? An ion or a molecule that must bind to the enzyme before substrate can also bind. Makes the enzyme functional. Coenzymes are nonprotein organic molecules that function as cofactors Ex: cofactor: calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc. Coenzymes: Niacin, riboflavi
What is a nucleotide? The building blocks of nucleic acids; a compound consisting of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group. Molecule made of sugars phosphate group, nitrogenous base
What do nucleotides form? nucleotides form the basic structural unit of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA
What is the primary function of a nucleic acid? bind together with hydrogen and store and transfer into necessary for protein synthesis in the cell
What are 2 nucleic acids? DNA. RNA
What is the primary function of ATP? Stores and transfers energy from one molecule to another, 3 phosphate, put together by kinetic energy and a nucleotide



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