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Physics 1a (2011)

AQA GCSE Science

QuestionAnswerExplanation (optional)
What is a fuel ? Something we burn to produce thermal energy e.g. coal, wood, petrol
Where does the energy stored in fuels come from ? The Sun All living things derive their energy from sunlight.
What are fossil fuels ? Coal, oil, natural gas. These took millions of years to form underground.
Why are fossil fuels non-renewable ? They cannot be replaced in our lifetime. The process takes millions of years.
What are renewable resources? Wind, wave, tidal, solar, geothermal,hydroelectric. These will never run out because they do not burn fuel.
What problems are associated with burning fossil fuels ? They cause pollution and add carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. They will run out someday and they also cause global warming.
Conduction happens only in . . . Sokids, liquids and gases. Although most liquids are poor conductors and so are gases.
Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity because . . . They contain de-localised electrons. The electrons are free to move and transport energy throughout the metal.
Gases and most non-metals are . . . Poor conductors of heat (and electricity) because they have no 'free' electrons.
Poor conductors such as glass and plastic are called . . . Thermal insulators. They are chosen because they do not conduct well.
Convection usually happens in . . . liquids and gases because they can FLOW
The flow of a fluid (liquid or gas) due to convection is called a . . . convection current Hot fluid is less dense so rises, transporting thermal energy.
Radiation is energy which is carried by . . . electromagnetic waves, such as light, infra red, radio, etc. There is no such thing as 'heat waves' in Physics.
Energy from the Sun travels through the vacuum of space as . . . electromagnetic radiation, mainly visible light. The Sun also radiates UV, IR, radio and X-rays.
The Earth absorbs radiation from the Sun. This causes . . . the temperature to increase during the hours of daylight. The temperature falls at night when energy is radiated back into space.
Every object emits . . . thermal radiation. The hotter it is the more radiation it emits.
Infra red radiation can be used in . . . TV remotes, thermal imaging cameras, security systems. IR is invisible to our eyes, but a digital camera can see it; shine a TV remote at it.
Infra red radiation can be detected with a . . . thermometer with a blackened bulb to absorb the energy. Black surfaces are good absorbers of radiation.
The electromagnetic spectrum consists of . . . Radio, microwaves, infra-red, visible, ultra-violet, X-rays and gamma rays. Visible light is just a very small part of it.
The Earth's atmosphere blocks which types of solar radiation? Ultra-violet, X-rays It allows light and some infra red to reach the surface.
What is the 'Greenhouse Effect'? Long wavelength radiation is absorbed and cannot escape. The Earth is warmer because of the Greenhoue effect.
Which gases are 'Greehouse gases' ? Water vapour, carbon dioxide and methane. They strongly absorb infra-red radiation from the Earth's surface.
Why is 'Global Warming' such a bad thing ? Polar ice is melting and sea levels are rising. Low lying areas will be flooded.
Created by: J Thomson

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