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1415 WH Enlig/Cap/Co

1415 Enlightenment Cap/Com

QuestionAnswer
Which economic system is based on individual profit? Capitalism
Who owns the production in capitalism? Individual
Who was the father of capitalism? Where was he from? Adam Smith, Scotland
What was Smith’s book called? Wealth of Nations
What did Smith think was the role of the government in the economy? It had no role. It should stay out of the economy.
Why did Smith say workers would work hard in factories? To raise production, which raises profits, which raises their wages.
What is “the invisible hand”? How does it work? The way the market balances itself out by shortages raising prices, which entices others to sell the product which brings prices back down and brings variety.
Why could competition in the market help people? It keeps prices down and a wide variety.
What does laissez-faire translate to? What does it mean? “let them do”. It means that the government should let the marked be free and not interfere.
It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker that we expect our dinner, but from their regard to their own interest. – Smith, Wealth of Nations – What does that mean? People don’t sell you things because they like you, they do it for profit.
What are three criticism of capitalism? Workers can be treated unfairly., Some people become very poor, Some must lose for some to win.
In communism, what does “To each according to their needs” mean? Everyone will get what they need.
How does ownership work in communism? Everyone shares everything. No one person owns anything.
Who is the father of communism? Where was he from? Karl Marx, Germany
What did Marx think history was all about? Class struggles. The poor man being kept down by the rich man.
What did Marx say about religion? What did that mean? He said it was the “opiate of the people” which means that people focus on religion and the afterlife when they should be fighting for this life. He saw religion as something that the rich invented to keep the peasants down.
What is the proletariat? The working class
What is the bourgeoisie? The land and factory owners
What did Marx say would happen among the proletariat and the bourgeoisie? A war would happen with the proletariat winning. Then, everyone would be equal and there would be no government or social classes.
What are four criticism of Marx’s Ideas? In the 20th century, it is estimated that 50 million people were killed in the name of communism. Most of Marx’s predictions haven’t came true yet. It is inconsistent with human nature. It degrades religion.
What is the difference between socialism communism? In both, the government (people) control the resources. In socialism, the goods are distributed based on how hard you work. In communism, the goods are distributed equally to everyone. Socialism is a temporary stepping-stone to get to communism.
What did Marx say was the history of economic systems throughout history? primitive communism > capitalism > socialism > communism
What is primitive communism? Before people began farming, they hunted and gathered and shared what they had like a family. Marx says this was pure communism and we need to return to this.
What did Marx say would be the final economic system? Communism
1. Why was Louis XIV called the Sun King? He was the only source of light for his country
2. Where was Louis XVI’s palace? Describe it. 10 miles from Paris. Very opulent, rich, could hold 1000 people. Made of gold.
4. Who was the first to come up with a heliocentric universe? What does heliocentric mean? Copernicus/sun-centered
3. Name two reasons the Church didn't like Galileo’s ideas about the universe. Earth not at center = ppl not important. Bible puts ppl as most important.
4. Who discovered gravity? What one-word title is his book known as? Isaac Newton/ Principia
11. What was the Enlightenment? Using the scientific method to solve social problems
12. Why is Diderot important in history? Invented Encyclopedia
15. What was Mary Wollstonecraft known for? What did she argue for? First modern feminist/equal education for women
What is a mestizo? Someone with mixed Spanish and Native blood.
Why are there many people with mixed Native and European blood in Latin America but so few with mixed Native and European blood in the US? Europeans in the US came with their families to settle down. Europeans in Latin America were single and ready to mingle.
What is the name for a monarch that controls everything? Absolute monarch
Who is the best example of an absolute monarch? Louis XIV (14th)
What term means the right to rule, given by God? Divine Right
What is the difference between heliocentric and geocentric solar systems? Heliocentric means the sun is in the center. Geocentric means the earth is in the center.
Which English philosopher thought most people agood and will do the right thing? Locke
Which English philosopher thought most people are bad and will do the wrong thing? Hobbes
Locke or Hobbes? People need more rights? Locke
Locke or Hobbes? People should be able to have guns? Locke
Locke or Hobbes? The government should control the people? Hobbes
Locke or Hobbes? Would probably be a Democrat or a liberal today? Locke
Lock or Hobbes? The government shouldn't force people to wear their seatbelts? Locke
Locke or Hobbes? If the government is doing bad things, you should overthrow it? Locke
Locke or Hobbes? Welfare and Social Security checks are bad? Hobbes
Locke or Hobbes? We should only pay very few taxes? Locke
Which philosopher came up with the idea that leads to modern conservative thought? Hobbes
Which philosopher came up with the idea that leads to modern liberal thought? Locke
Who came up with the scientific method? Bacon
Who came up with the three branches of government? He was French. Montesquieu
What is the religious belief that God started the universe and then walked away, not worrying about the day-to-day events on the earth? Deism
Which French philosopher got in a lot of trouble for criticizing the Catholic Church and Christianity as a whole? Voltaire
Created by: rockcastle