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C1.1 Glossary

TermDefinition
Atom The smallest part of an element that can still be recognised as an element.
Atomic Number The number of protons (which equals the number of electrons) in an atom. It is sometimes called the proton number.
Compound A substance made when two or more elements are chemically bonded together. For example water, H2O, is a compound made from hydrogen and oxygen.
Covalent Bond The attraction between two atoms that share one, or more, pairs of electrons.
Covalent Bonding The attraction between two atoms that share one, or more, pairs of electrons.
Delocalised Electron Bonding electron that is no longer associated with any one particular atom.
Dot and Cross Diagram A drawing to show the arrangement of the outer shell electrons only of the atoms or ions in a substance.
Double Bond A covalent bond made by the sharing of two pairs of electrons.
Electron A tiny particle with a negative charge. Electrons orbit the nucleus in atoms or ions.
Electronic Structure A set of numbers to show the arrangement of electrons in their shells or energy levels. E.g. the electronic structure of a potassium atom is 2,8,8,1.
Element A substance made up of only one type of atom. An element can not be broken down chemically into any simpler substance.
Energy Level (or Shell) An area in an atom, around its nucleus, where the electrons are found.
Shell (or Energy Level) An area in an atom, around its nucleus, where the electrons are found.
Gas A state of matter.
Inert Unreactive.
Ion A charged particle formed by the loss or gain of electrons.
Ionic Bond The electrostatic force of attraction between positively and negatively charged ions.
Ionic Bonding The electrostatic force of attraction between positively and negatively charged ions.
Liquid A state of matter.
Mass Number The number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
Mixture When some elements or compounds are mixed together and intermingle but do not react together. (i.e. no new substance is made). A mixture is not a pure substance.
Molecule A group of atoms bonded together, e.g. PCl3.
Neutron A dense particle found in the nucleus of an atom. It is electrically neutral, carrying no charge.
Nucleus ( of an atom) The very small and dense central part of an atom which contains protons and neutrons.
Product A substance made as a result of a chemical reaction.
Proton A tiny positive particle found in the nucleus of an atom.
Reactant A substance we start with before a chemical reaction takes place.
Solid A state of matter.
State Symbol The abbreviations used in balanced symbol equations to show to show if reactants or products are solids (s), liquids (l), gases (g) or dissolved in water (aq)
Symbol Equation A balanced chemical equation showing the formula of each reactant and product in the reaction. E.g. H2 + Cl2 = 2HCl
Created by: willocka
 

 



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