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Chemistry 2.6

AS edexcel chemistry - redox

What is a redox reaction and a disproportionation reaction? Redox - where one substance is oxidised and the other is reduced. Disproportionation - a redox reaction where an element in a single species is simultaneously oxidised and reduced
What is reduction and oxidation? Reduction - the loss of oxygen, the gain of hydrogen, the gain of electrons (RIG). Oxidation - the gain of oxygen, combustion, the loss of hydrogen, the loss of electrons (OIL)
What is an oxidising agent? An agent that oxidises another species by removing electrons, and the agent is simultaneously reduced
What is a reducing agent? An agent that reduces another species by donating electrons, and the agent is simultaneously oxidised
How do you complete complex and simple half equations and turn them into full ionic equations? Balance atoms and charges. Include state symbols. Simple: balance just with electrons. Complex (acid): balance O with H2O, balance H with H+, balance charge with e-. Ensure number of electrons in half equations are equal before adding
What is oxidation number? The formal number of electrons gained or lost by an atom of an element in a compound if the compound is considered to be wholly ionic
What does an increase/ decrease in oxidation number mean? Increase - substance has been oxidised, decrease - substance has been reduced
What are the rules of oxidation numbers? Uncombined element=0. Monatomic ion=charge on ion. Sum in a neutral compound=0. Sum in a polyatomic ion=charge on ion. Group 1 = +1. Group 2=+2. F=-1. H= +1 (except with a metal). O=-2 (except superoxide, peroxide or with fluorine)
What are some steps to remember with oxidation numbers? Ignore stoichiometry, oxidation numbers can be fractions, give the sign then the number
What are the oxidation numbers of the elements in: (NH4)2Cr2O7 N= -3. H=+1. Cr = +6. O = -2
What are the oxidation numbers of the elements in: NaOH Na = +1. O = -2. H = +1
What is the number of electrons in a half equation equal to? The change in oxidation number of the element
What are some real -life examples of oxidation and reduction? Aerobic respiration: oxygen reduced from 0->-2. Rusting: oxygen reduced from 0->-2, iron oxidised from 0->2. Combustion: oxygen is reduced, other reactant is oxidised. Batteries: Zn+CuSO4->ZnSO4+ Cu. displacement reaction, Zn oxidised, Cu reduced
What is the half equation for NO3- -> NO2- NO3 - + 2H+ + 2e -> NO2- + H2O
Created by: 11043