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AdvChem Ch16&17

Chapter 16 & 17 vocab terms

TermDefinition
Three factors that affect how fast a substance dissolves Agitation, Temperature, Size of particles of solute
Saturated solution contains the maximum amount of solute for a given quantity of solvent at constant temperature and pressure
Unsaturated solution contains less solute than a saturated solution. If additional solute is added it will dissolve until it becomes saturated
Supersaturated contains more solute than it can theoretically hold usually because the temperature is higher than rom temperature (rock candy)
Solubility the amount of solute that dissolves in a given quantity of a solvent at a specific temperature and pressure to produce a saturated solution
Miscible solution liquids that dissolve in each other in all portions (water and milk)
Immiscible solution liquids that are insoluble in one another (oil and water)
Concentration a measure of the amount of solute that is dissolved in a given quantity of solvent
Dilute solution contains a small amount of solute
Concentrated solution contains a large amount of solute
Molarity (M) number of moles of solute dissolved in one liter of solution
Percent by volume the ratio of the volume of solute to volume of solution
Percent by mass the ratio of the mass of the solute to the mass of the solution
Colligative property property of a solution that depends only upon the number of solute particles (not their identity)
Molality (m) the number of moles of solute dissolved in 1 kg of solvent
Mole fractions the ratio of the moles of a solute to the total number of moles of solvent and solute
Thermochemistry the study of energy changes that occur during chemical reactions and changes in state
Chemical Potential Energy energy stored in chemical bonds
Endothermic heat is absorbed from surroundings (to system from surroundings)
Exothermic releases heat to surroundings (from system to surroundings)
System where attention is focused (what is being measured)
Surroundings everything around system
Created by: mstreet