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Chemistry Quiz 1

QuestionAnswer
What does the atomic number of an element tell you about that element? number of protons (and usually electrons as long as it is a neutral atom)
How do you find the atomic mass? atomic mass = protons + neutrons
Majority of the mass of an element is found in the ___________. nucleus
The rows on the periodic table are called__________. periods
The columns on the periodic table are called __________. families or groups
What do the groups on a periodic table tell you about that element? Groups categorize elements that have similar properties. They also tell you how many electrons are found in the atom's outer shell.
What do the periods on a periodic table tell you about that element? The periods tell you how many electron shells are found in the element.
Majority of elements found on the periodic table are classified as _____________. metals (75%)
What charge do protons have? positive
What charge do electrons have? negative
What charge do neutrons have? none- they are neutral
A chemical property describes..... a substance's potential to undergo a chemical change/reaction
A physical property describes... characteristics of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the composition of matter
How can you tell when there is a chemical reaction? a new substance is formed- there is a change in physical and/or chemical properties
How can you tell when there is a physical reaction? no new substance is formed, but it can change shape, size, or state of matter (solid, liquid, gas)
Define atom. the smallest part of an element, that still has all of the properties of that element (building block of matter)
Define element. A substance made up of all of the same type of atom (found on periodic table)
Define molecule. A substance made of two or more atoms chemically bonded together
Define compound. A substance made of two or more atoms of two or more different elements
Define solution. A mixture in which a solid has dissolved in a liquid
Define mixture. A combination of substances that are NOT chemically bonded together- the substances could be separated relatively easily
Compare the molecular structure of a solid, liquid, and gas. Molecules of a solid are closest together, molecules of a liquid have are a little less dense (more spaced out), and molecules of a gas are least dense (most space between them) Water is an exception- ice is actually less dense than water
The "staircase" on the periodic table represents the __________ metalloids.
On what side of the "staircase" are metals found on the periodic table? left
An ice cube melting is an example of what type of change? physical
An ice cube melts when it reacts with table salt (NaCl) is an example of what type of change? physical (change of state and lower freezing point), new solution/ mixture is made (salt water), water molecules did not chemically bond with salt molecules
A bicycle rusts after being left out in the rain is an example of what type if change? chemical- The iron is exposed to moisture and oxygen for an extended period of time. The iron atoms chemically bonds with the oxygen atoms forming iron oxide.
Dry ice sublimating (going from a solid directly to a gas) is an example of what type of change? physical (change of state)
Chewing and digesting food exemplifies what type(s) of change? physical- chewing, breaking food into smaller pieces chemical- enzymes in the body digesting the food
When salad dressing sits on a shelf for an extended period of time, allowing layers to form, this is an example of what type of mixture? heterogenous (samples will be different)
Is soil an example of a heterogenous mixture or a homogenous mixture? heterogenous (samples will be different)
Crystal Light (the drink) is an example of what type of mixture? homogenous (all samples will be the same)
Is water an element, compound, or mixture? compound
Is gold an element, compound, or mixture? element
Is saline solution (salt water) an element, compound, or mixture? mixture
Use periodic table: How many protons does one atom of Phosphorus have in its nucleus? 15
Use periodic table: How many neutrons does one atom of Phosphorus have in its nucleus? 16 (round atomic mass up to 31)
Use periodic table: How many electrons does one atom of Phosphorus have orbiting its nucleus? 15
Use periodic table: How many valence electrons does one atom of Phosphorus have? 5 (found in group 5)
Use periodic table: How many electron shells does one atom of Phosphorus have? 3 (found in period 3)
Use periodic table: How many protons does one atom of Potassium have in its nucleus? 19
Use periodic table: How many neutrons does one atom of Potassium have in its nucleus? 20 (rounded atomic mass - atomic #) (39-19 = 20)
Use periodic table: How many electrons does one atom of Potassium have orbiting its nucleus? 19
Use periodic table: How many valence electrons does one atom of Potassium have orbiting in the outermost shell? 1 (group 1)
Use periodic table: How many shells of electrons will one atome of Potassium have? 4 (period 4)
Description of the color, size, shape, texture, or smell of a substance would be considered ________ properties. physical
Describing a substance as flammable, explosive, or corrosive would be sharing the _________ properties. chemical
The halogens can be found in what group on the periodic table? group 7
What group on the periodic table contains the noble gasses? group 8
Boiling water is an example of a _________ change. physical - change of state (liquid to gas)
How many protons, neutrons, electrons does one atom of Boron have? 5 protons, 6 neutrons, 5 electrons
Calcium and Argon both have a rounded atomic mass of 40. How is this possible if they are different elements? One atom of calcium has 20 protons, while one atom of Argon has 18 protons. This makes them have different properties, making them different elements that happen to have the same atomic mass.
Created by: Mrs.Koch