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GOPO Executive Terms

Cabinet Advisory council for the president consisting of the heads of the executive departments, the vice president, and a few other officials selected by the president.
Chief of staff The head of the White House staff.
Executive agreement A formal agreement between the U.S. president and the leaders of other nations that does not require Senate approval.
Executive Office of the President The cluster of presidential staff agencies that help the president carry out his responsibilities. Currently the office includes the Office of Management and Budget, the Council of Economic Advisers, and several other units.
Executive orders Formal orders issued by the president to direct action by the Federal bureaucracy.
Executive privilege The right to keep executive communications confidential, especially if they relate to National Security.
Impeachment Formal accusation against a president or other public official, the first step in removal from office.
Inherent powers Powers that grow out of the very existence of government.
Line item veto Presidential power to strike, or remove, specific items from a spending bill without vetoing the entire package; declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
Electoral Mandate A president’s claim of broad public support. Used to show that he is the voice of the people who elected him.
Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Presidential staff the agency that serves as a clearinghouse for budgetary requests and management improvements for government agencies.
Parliamentary system A system of government in which the legislature selects the prime minister or president. No separation of powers.
Pocket veto A formal decision to reject a bill passed by Congress after it adjourns
Presidential ticket The joint listing of the presidential and vice presidential candidates on the same ballot as required by the Twelfth Amendment.
Rally point A rising public approval of the president that follows a crisis as Americans “rally ’round the flag” and the chief executive.
State of the Union Address The president’s annual statement to Congress and the nation.
Treaty A formal, public agreement between the United States and one or more nations that must be approved by two thirds of the Senate.
Veto A formal decision to reject the bill passed by Congress.
Lame duck period The period of time for a president after her or his successor has been elected, but before the successor's term begins. Between November and January 20th at the end of their term.
Balanced Ticket Theselection in runnning partner that brings diversity in ideologies, ethnicity/race, geography, etc.
Press Secretary The president's spokesperson to the media.
Expressed Powers Powers written directly into the Constitution. Also called enumerated powers.
Inherent Powers Powers that are implied in the Constitution. Also called implied powers.
Approval Ratings Percentage of people who "approve" or "disapprove" of how the president is handling things.
Watergate During the Nixon administration, scandals involving burglaries, wire planting and the cover-up by high-up officials.
Twenty-second Amendment Passed in 1951, the amendment that limits presidents to two terms of office.
Twenty-fifth Amendment A 1967 amendment to the Constitution that establishes procedures for filling presidential and vice presidential vacancies and makes provisions for presidential disability.
National Security Council (NSC) An agency in the Executive Office of the President that advises the president on national security.
Presidential Coattails The situation occurring when voters cast their ballots for congressional candidates of the president's party because they support the president.
War Powers Resolution A law passed in 1973 in reaction to Vietnam that requires presidents to consult with Congress whenever possible prior to using military force and to withdraw forces after 60 days unless Congress declares war or grants an extension.
"Bully Pulpit" The nature of presidential status as an ideal vehicle for persuading the public to support the president's policies.
Bureaucracy A system of managing government through departments run by appointed officials.
Pendleton Civil Service Act Passed in 1883, an Act that created a federal civil service so that hiring and promotion would be based on merit rather than patronage.
Civil Service Service for the government. Government workers.
Hatch act A federal law prohibiting government employees from active participation in partisan politics.
Office of Personnel Management (OPM) Agency that administers civil service laws, rules, and regulations.
Independent Regulatory Agency An administrative agency that is not considered part of the government's executive branch and is not subject to the authority of the president. Independent agency officials cannot be removed without cause.
Federal reserve Board The 7-member board governing the Federal Reserve System.
National Labor Relations Board An independent agency of the United States government charged with mediating disputes between management and labor unions.
Federal Communications Commission An independent government agency that regulates interstate and international communications by radio and television and wire and cable and satellite.
Federal Trade Commission Established to preserve competition by preventing unfair business practices and investigates complaints against companies.
Securities and Exchange Commission An independent federal agency that oversees the exchange of securities to protect investors.
Government Corporations A business owned and operated by the federal government. Can provide services that could be provided by the private sector. NPR and PBS are examples.
Independent Executive Agencies A federal agency not part of a cabinet department, but reports directly to the president.
General Services Administration A central management agency that sets Federal policy for Federal procurement and real property management and information resources management.
Policy Implementation The primary function of the bureaucracy; it refers to the process of carrying out the authoritative decisions of Congress, the president, and the courts.
Standard Operating Procedures Rules that lower-level bureaucrats must follow when implementing policies.
Government Regulation Use of governmental authority to control of change some practice in the private sector.
Deregulation The lifting of restrictions on business, industry, and professional activities for which government rules had been established and that bureaucracies had been created to administer.
Iron Triangles The alliance among congressional committees, interest groups, and federal departments/agencies.
Twelfth Amendment Beginning in 1804, electors would vote separately for President and Vice President.
Chief Executive The office of the United States head of state, which is the president.
Pardons Freedom from punishment.
Commander in Chief The officer who holds the supreme command, the president.
Pendleton Act 1883 law that created a Civil Service Commission and stated that federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign funds nor be fired for political reasons.
Privatization To change from government or public ownership or control to private ownership or control.
Spoils System The system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power.
Whistleblower An employee who exposes unethical or illegal conduct within the federal government.
Honeymoon Period The time following an election when a president's popularity is high and congressional relations are likely to be productive.
Impoundment refusal of a President to spend money that has been appropriated by Congress
Red tape complex rules and procedures required by bureaucratic agencies
Electoral College Official electors of the president. Today, they are a "rubber stamp", giving their votes to the candidate that the majority of the state voted for in the general election (winner take all). Sometimes the votes are proportional.
Winner take all system The way most states give out Electoral College votes. The EC gives their votes to the candidate that the majority of the state voted for in the general election
Proportional System When the Electoral College votes are divided like the popular vote. In Kentucky, if someone gets 50% of the popular vote, they'll get half the EC votes.
Cabinet Secretary The head of a cabinet department. There are 14 of them.
Divided loyalties the fact that most cabinet members usually take the side of their department when they have to choose between it and the president's wishes. This is also the case with legislators when they must choose between constituents and the prez.
Chief Legislator a nickname of the president that discusses the president's power in introducing laws to Congress. It basically means that he is the most important law maker, even though he isn't in the legislative branch
Chief Diplomat a nickname of the president that addresses his importance in working with leaders from other countries. He is the most important ambassador we have.
"Rally round the flag" the idea that after national crisis or a war, the president will have higher approval ratings. a type of rally point.
Created by: rockcastle