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AP Unit 5 Terms

QuestionAnswer
Abolish To do away with; to end
Absolute Monarch Form of government where the king or queen has complete control over their country
American Revolution Uprising of the American colonies against the imperial power-Britain. The United States was the first colony to break away from a European colonial power
Apartheid African term literally meaning "aparthood"; the system that developed in South Africa of strictly limiting the social and political integration of whites and blacks.
Assembly Line Production line: mechanical system in a factory; A system of workers and machinery in which a product is assembled in a series of consecutive operations
Bloody Sunday On a Sunday in 1905, moderates marched in a protest on the Czar's palace in Russia. Nicholas II felt threatened and ordered his troops to fire on the protestors.
Boer Wars (Africa 1899-1902) War between England and Dutch settlers over who would control South Africa including its gold and diamond mines
Bourgeoisie Term that Karl Marx used to describe the owners of industrial capital; originally meant "townspeople."
Boxer Rebellions Resulted from the Chinese tring to run the non-Chinese out of China. The non-Chinese rebelled. The Boxers were the Chinese. The rebellion failed and the Chinese had to pay the Europeans and Japan fro the rebellion.
Capital Wealth in the form of money
Capitalism An economic system based on private ownership of capital; Economic system in which property is privately owned and goods are privately produced.It is sometimes referred to as the private enterprise system.
Cartel Agreement
Cash-Crop Agriculture Agricultural production, often on a large scale, of crops for sale in the market, rather than for consumption by the farmers themselves.
Caudillo A military strongman who seized control of a government in nineteenth-century Latin America.
Cecil Rhodes British colonial financier and statesman in South Africa; made a fortune in gold and diamond mining; helped colonize Zimbabwe; he endowed annual fellowships for British Commonwealth and United States students to study at Oxford University (1853-1902)
Charles Darwin He founded the theory of evololution and natural selection; Darwinists believed the dominant races or classes of people rose to the top through a process of survival of the fittest.
Commercial Connected with or engaged in commerce or commercial enterprises
Communism Communism is a social structure in which, theoretically, classes are abolished and property is commonly controlled, as well as a political philosophy and social movement that advocates and aims to create such a society.
Communist Manifesto Told that the working class would eventually revolt and take control of the means `of production.
Congo Free State/Leopold II Leopold II was king of Belgium from 1865 to 1909; his rule as private owner of the Congo Free State during much of that time is typically held up as the worst abuse of Europe's second wave of colonization, resulting as it did in millions of deaths.
Constitution Fundamental law: law determining the fundamental political principles of a government
Creoles Native-born elites in the Spanish colonies.
Daimyo Feudal lords of Japan who retained substantial autonomy under the Tokugawa shogunate and only lost their social preeminence in the Meiji restoration.
Declaration of Independence The document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the Colonies from Great Britain
Declaration of the Rights of Man A document adopted in August of 1789 recognizing natural rights based on ideas of the Enlightenment and the American Declaration of Independence. It was distributed across Europe furthering the ideas of freedom, equality, and rule of law.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen Document drawn up by the French National Assembly in 1789 that proclaimed the equal rights of all men; the declaration ideologically launched the French Revolution.
Declaration of the Rights of Women Short work written by the French feminist Olympe de Gouges in 1791 that was modeled on the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen and that made the argument that the equality proclaimed by the French revolutionaries must also include women.
Domestic Of or relating to the home; concerning the internal affairs of a nation
Elizabeth Cady Stanton Leading figure of the early women's rights movement in the United States (1815-1902).
Emancipation The act of setting free from the power of another, from slavery, subjection, dependence, or controlling influence;
Emancipation of Serfs Alexander II of Russia issued the Emanicipation Eddict, which abolished serfdom. The serfs were given very small plots of land for which they had to give huge payments to the government to keep. The Russian peasants continued to live a meager existence.
Enlightenment The era in Western philosophy and intellectual, scientific and cultural life, in which reason was advocated as the primary source and legitimacy for authority
Estates-General The legislative body of France. Composed of representatives from the three estates which are Clergy in the First Estate, Nobles in the Second Estate, and peasants in the Third Estate
Free Market Any market in which trade is unregulated; an economic system free from government intervention
French Revolution Massive dislocation of French society (1789-1815) that overthrew the monarchy, destroyed most of the French aristocracy, and launched radical reforms of society that were lost again, though only in part, under Napoleon's imperial rule and after the restor
Haiti Name that revolutionaries gave to the former French colony of Saint Domingue; the term means "mountainous" or "rugged" in the Taino language.
Haitian Revolution The only fully successful slave rebellion in world history; the uprising in the French Caribbean colony of Saint Domingue (later renamed Haiti) was sparked by the French Revolution and led to the establishment of an independent state after a long and bloo
Hidalgo-Morelos rebellion Socially radical peasant insurrection that began in Mexico in 1810 and that was led by the priests Miguel Hidalgo and José Morelos.
Hong Xiuquan Chinese religious leader (1814-1864) who sparked the Taiping Uprising and won millions to his unique form of Christianity, according to which he himself was the younger brother of Jesus, sent to establish a "heavenly kingdom of great peace" on earth.
Immigration The introduction of new people into a habitat or population; moving into a country
Imperialism A policy of entending your rule over foreign countries
Indian Cotton Textiles For much of the eighteenth century, well-made and inexpensive cotton textiles from India flooded Western markets; the competition stimulated the British textile industry to industrialize, which led to the eventual destruction of the Indian textile market
Indian National Congress In 1885, a group of well-educated Indians formed the Indian National Congress to begin a path toward indepence.
Indian Rebellion, 1857-1858 Massive uprising of much of India against British rule; also called the Indian Mutiny or the Sepoy Mutiny from the fact that the rebellion first broke out among Indian troops in British employ.
Industrial Revolution The transformation from an agricultural to an industrial nation; A fundamental change in the way that goods are produced and the behavior of the people who produce them
Intolerable Acts Parliament responded to the Boston Tea Party by passing the Coercive Acts, also known as the Intolerable Acts in 1774. They were unjust acts and they intended to punish Boston and Massachusetts for the crime committed by a few individuals.
Karl Marx Founder of modern communism; wrote the Communist Manifesto with Engels in 1848;
Labor Union An organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals like better working conditions
Laissez-faire The doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs
Latin American Revolution Series of risings in the Spanish colonies of Latin America (1810-1826) that established the independence of new states from Spanish rule but that for the most part retained the privileges of the elites despite efforts at more radical social rebellion by t
Lower Middle Class Social stratum that developed in Britain in the nineteenth century and that consisted of people employed in the service sector as clerks, salespeople, secretaries, police officers, and the like; by 1900, this group comprised about 20 percent of Britain's
Marxism The economic and political theories of Karl Marx; Communism
Matthew Perry U.S. navy commodore who in 1853 presented the ultimatum that led Japan to open itself to more normal relations with the outside world.
Meiji Restoration The overthrow of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan in 1868, restoring power at long last to the emperor Meiji.
Mexican Revolution Long and bloody war (1911-1920) in which Mexican reformers from the middle class joined with workers and peasants to overthrow the dictator Porfirio Díaz and create a new, much more democratic political order.
Miguel Hidalgo (Mexico) A Creole priest who led a revolt against Spanish rule. The Spanish armies resisted effectively and put down the revolt; Hildalogo was executed.
Model T The first automobile affordable enough for a mass market; produced by American industrialist Henry Ford.
Monopoly A market in which there are many buyers but only one seller; One company dominates the market
Monroe Doctrine An American foreign policy opposing interference in the western hemisphere from outside powers; A political policy of the United States by President James Monroe that states the Western Hemisphere is closed to European interference.
Muhammed Ali (Egypt) When Napolean tried to conquer Egypt during his attempt to expand France, Muhammed Ali defeated the French and the Ottomans, and gained control of Egypt in 1805. He had almost exclusive control of Egypt. He began the industrialization of Egypt.
Muslim League After the Hindu Indian National Congress was established in 1885 to increase the rights of Indians under colonial rule, the Muslim League in 1906 was created to advance the causes of Islamic Indians.
Napoleon Bonaparte French head of state from 1799 until his abdication in 1814 (and again briefly in 1815); Napoleon preserved much of the French Revolution under an autocratic system and was responsible for the spread of revolutionary ideals through his conquest of much of
Nation A clearly defined territory whose people have a sense of common identity and destiny, thanks to ties of blood, culture, language, or common experience.
Nation-State Generally an independent political state
Nationalism The focusing of citizens' loyalty on the notion that they are part of a "nation" with a unique culture, territory, and destiny; first became a prominent element of political culture in the nineteenth century.
North American Revolution Successful rebellion conducted by the colonists of parts of North America (not Canada) against British rule (1775-1787); a conservative revolution whose success assured property rights but established republican government in place of monarchy.
Open Door Policy The United States pledged its support of the soverignty of Chinese government and announced equal trading privileges among all imperial powers (basically Europe and the United States.)
Opium Wars Two wars fought between Western powers and China (1839-1842 and 1856-1858) after China tried to restrict the importation of foreign goods, especially opium; China lost both wars and was forced to make major concessions.
Panamal Canal An aspect of American intervention in Latin America; resulted from United States support for a Panamanian independence movement in return for a grant to exclusive rights to a canal across the Panama isthmus; provided route from Atlantic to Pacific Ocean
Porfirio Diaz Mexican dictator from 1876 to 1911 who was eventually overthrown in a long and bloody revolution.
Proletariat Term that Karl Marx used to describe the industrial working class; originally used in ancient Rome to describe the poorest part of the urban population.
Reign of Terror Robespierres reign of France; He created the Committee of Public safety- An all-powerful enforcer of the revolution that murdered anyone against the revolution
Revolution The overthrow of a government by those who are governed
Rudyard Kipling He wrote the poem "White Man's Burden." He summed this up: Europeans believed they were the superior race and had a moral obligation to teach other people how to be more like Europeans. They wanted to take over other nations&convert them to Christianity
Rural of or relating to the countryside; pertaining to less-populated, non-urban areas
Russification All Russians were expected to learn the Russian language and convert to Russian Orthodoxy. Anyone who didn't comply was persecuted, especially Jews.
Russo-Japanese War Japan kicked Russia out of Manchuria and established its own sphere of influence there. Japan was now an imperial power and WORLD POWER! 1904
Samurai Armed retainers of the Japanese feudal lords, famed for their martial skills and loyalty; in the Tokugawa shogunate, the samurai gradually became an administrative elite, but they did not lose their special privileges until the Meiji restoration.
Scramble for Africa Also known as the Race for Africa; resulted in occupation and annexation of African territory by European powers during the New Imperialism period,1880s-1914; European rush to colonize parts of Africa at the end of the nineteenth century.
Self-Strengthening Movement China's program of internal reform in the 1860s and 1870s, based on vigorous application of Confucian principles and limited borrowing from the West.
Seneca Falls Conference The first organized women's rights conference, which took place at Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848.
Sepoy Mutiny (1857) The East India Company relied on Sepoys, Indians. In 1857, the Sepoys learned that the bullet cartridges, that were bitten off to load riffles, were greased with beef and pork, violating Hindu and Muslim laws. They rebelled-failed. Britian took over.
Seven Years' War (French and Indian) France and Britian were long time rivals. France and the Algonquin and Iroquois tribes fought Britian and lost. French territory was pushed to the north and English territories expanded to the Ohio River Valley.
Sino-Japanese war The Chinese were defeated in this war; War between China and Japan (1894 and 1895) over the control of the Korean Peninsula
Social class The hierarchical arrangements of people in society as economic or cultural groups
Social Darwinism An application of the concept of "survival of the fittest" to human history in the nineteenth century.
Socialism A political theory advocating state ownership of industry
Spanish American War The United States destroyed the Spanish fleets in Cuba and the Phillippines and gained control of Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Phillipines. Cuba was given independence, in exchange for concessions to US. The United States WAS NOW CONSIDERED A WORLD POWER
Spheres of Influence The European powers established these in China. France, Germany, Russia, and Britian carved up huge slices of China for themselves. They were not colonies; they were areas that the European powers invested heavily, built military bases, set up buisiness.
Steam Engine (James Watts) A heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid
Suez Canal Completed in 1869. Connected the Mediterranean Sea to the Indian Ocean. Eliminated the need to go around the Cape of Good Hope.
Suffrage The right to vote
Taiping Rebellion The Taipings, led by a religous person claiming to be the brother of Jeses, recruited an army nearly a million strong and nearly suceeded in bringing down the Manchu government. The rebesl failed, but the message that China was crumling from within came.
Tanzimat Reforms Important reform measures undertaken in the Ottoman Empire beginning in 1839; the term "________" means "reorgani-zation."
The "Sick Man of Europe" Western Europe's unkind nickname for the Ottoman Empire in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a name based on the sultans' inability to prevent Western takeover of many regions and to deal with internal problems; it fails to recognize serious r
The Jewel in the Crown Another name for India. It was seen as the final jewel in the royal British crown.
The Terror Term used to describe the revolutionary violence in France in 1793-1794, when radicals under the leadership of Maximilien Robespierre executed tens of thousands of people deemed enemies of the revolution.
Third Estate In prerevolutionary France, the term used for the 98 percent of the population that was neither clerical nor noble, and for their representatives at the Estates General; in 1789, the Third Estate declared itself a National Assembly and launched the French
Tokugawa Shogunate Rulers of Japan from 1600 to 1868.
Toussant Louverture First leader of the Haitian Revolution, a former slave (1743-1803) who wrote the first constitution of Haiti and served as the first governor of the newly independent state.
Trade union An organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals like better working conditions
Unequal Treaties British traders sold outlawed opium to China. China and Britain fought a war over the opium trade. China was forced to sign the Treaty of Nanjing, aka "unequal treties." Britian was given rights to expand with China and create more opium addicts.
Universal Suffrage The extension of the right to vote to all adult citizens as a whole
Urbanization The growth of the city into rural areas
Utopia/ Utopian An imaginary place considered to be perfect or ideal
Wage Labor The socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer
Wealth of Nations (Adam Smith) Adam Smith wrote this book in 1776. It said that economic prosperity and fairness is best achieved through private ownership. Individuals should own the means of production in a free open market. Governments should NOT interfere in the economy.
Western Educated Elite The main beneficiaries in Asian and African lands colonized by Western powers; schooled in the imperial power's language and practices, they moved into their country's professional classes but ultimately led anticolonial movements as they grew discouraged
White Man's Burden Rudyard Kipling wrote this; He summed this up: Europeans believed they were the superior race and had a moral obligation to teach other people how to be more like Europeans. They wanted to take over other nations&convert them to Christianity
Young Turks Movement of Turkish military and civilian elites that developed ca. 1900, eventually bringing down the Ottoman Empire.
Created by: rockcastle