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Vocab study before playing Stat-tures

population a statistical study of the entire group of individuals
census collects data from every individual in the population
sample a subset of individuals in the population
bias consistently underestimate or consistently overestimate
convenience sampling chooses individuals easiest to reach
voluntary response sample consists of people who choose themselves by responding to an invitation
simple random sample x number of individuals chosen randomly from the population
table of random digits a random and independent string of digits
stratified random sample classifying the population into groups of similar individuals and then used to form an SRS
cluster sample classifying the population into groups of individuals that are located near each other and then used to form an SRS
undercoverage bias some members of a population cannot be chosen in a sample
nonresponse bias when an individual chosen for a sample cannot be contacted or refuses to participate
wording of questions influences the answers given to a sample survey
response bias a systematic pattern of incorrect responses in a sample survey
observational survey observes individuals and variables, does not attempt to influence responses
experiment deliberately imposes a treatment on individuals
confounding when two variables are associated and their effects on a response variable cannot be distinguished
treatment a specific condition applied to individuals in an experiment
experimental units smallest collection of individuals to which treatments are applied
subject when experiment units are humans
comparison a design with two or more treatments
random assignment use chance to assign experimental units to treatments
control keep other variables that might affect the response the same for all groups
replication use enough experimental units in each group so any differences can be distinguished from chance difference between the groups
statistically significant an observed effect so large that it would rarely occur by chance
completely randomized design treatments are assigned to all the experimental units completely by chance
control group receives an inactive treatment or existing baseline treatment
placebo effect response to a dummy treatment
double-blind experiment neither the subjects nor those who interact with them know which treatment a subject received
block a group of experimental units that are known before the experiment to be similar in some way that is expected to affect the response
randomized block design the random assignment of experimental units to treatments is carried out separately within each block
matched pairs design a randomized blocked experiment in which each block consists pairs of similar experimental units
Created by: winklehannah