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# Gravity

### Introductory Concepts

“G” The “universal gravitational constant” = 6.67 X 10^-11 N-m^2/kg^2
Direction – horizontal Perpendicular to the direction gravity acts
Direction – vertical The line the direction of gravity acts
Newton’s Law of Gravity The description of the force acting between any two objects in the universe; Depends on the inverse of distance-squared
Projectile An object moving under the influence of gravity but in two dimensions (horizontally and vertically)
Projectile The horizontal and vertical motions are totally independent of each other
Projectile – Horizontal No force acts in horizontal direction; therefore the horizontal direction has constant velocity
Projectile – vertical The force acting in the vertical is gravity; the acceleration is g = 9.8 m/sec^2 (usually taken as 10 m/sec^2 in problems)
Satellite An object moving around a planet, like earth satellites and the moon
Satellite – behavior Is free-falling; due to “horizontal” or “tangential” velocity, it “falls around” the planet; constant energy
Speed - escape the speed necessary for an object to possess in order to completely leave the planet; 11.2 km/sec for earth
Speed – orbital the tangential speed necessary for an object to become a satellite just above the atmosphere of a planet; 8 km/sec for earth
Support force The force necessary to exactly oppose the gravitational force on an object resulting in equilibrium
Weight The support force opposing the attractive force of the earth on an object due to gravity
Weightless No support force; results in free-fall
Created by: brownglarry