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Chapter 12 Chemistry

Solutions =solvent+solute, homogeneous mixtures of variable composition in a single phase, mixtures that don't clump together, separate from each other, or fall to the bottom of the container.
Solvent the MOST abundant substance in a solution
Solute the LEAST abundant substance in a solution, they are the dissolved substance
Miscible when 2 liquids mix to form a homogeneous mixture
Immiscible when liquids separate after mixing (oil and vinegar), not mixable
Solid solutions can dissolve liquids, gasses, or other solids (metal alloys are an example)
Amalgam a solution containing mercury
Gaseous solutions cannot dissolve liquids or solids bc gas particles are smaller
Solvation dissolving process in solid-in-liquid solutions
Hydration solvation in water
Dissocation if the solute is an IONIC compound, solvent molecules break up the crystal into ions in this process of dissociation
Ionization when covalent compounds form ions when they dissolve
Covalent molcules in solid and gaseous solutions solutes and solvents mix mostly by diffusion
Ionic metal-nonmetal
Covalent nonmetal-nonmetal
Like dissolves like non-polar solvents dissolve non-polar solutes, polar dissolves polar or ionic substances (things with CHARGES)
What dissolves in water? POLAR THINGS
Soluble able to be dissolved (water and sugar)
Insoluble NOT able to be dissolved (water and oil)
Unsaturated when you can add more solute to a solution and more can be dissolved
Saturdated when you can't dissolve more solute without seeing some fall to the bottom of the container
Supersaturation when a solution contains more dissolved solute than it does at equilibrium
Little m molality
Big M molarity
What is the i if it is covalent? i=1
Water's second temp is always... 100 degrees Celsius
Where do you take the SF's from? molality
What are colloids? they are NOT solutions! they are mixtures that contain small particles dispersed in a medium
What are the particles called in colloids? Dispersed phase
What is the medium called? the dispersing medium
What is an example of a colloid? fog
What was John Tyndall's theory? The Tyndall Effect
What was the Tyndall Effect? a beam of light will pass through a solution w/o being seen, it is used to distinguish colloids from solutions
Created by: zeldaprincess97