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PHYS 131

Final Exam

Constellations groups if stars named by ancient cultures to honor gods, animals, legends, etc.
How many constellations are in whole sky? 88
The stars appear to rotate around _____. Polaris
What causes the stars in the night sky to rotate? The rotation of the Earth.
What do you call stars and constellations that never set? circumpolar (the rotate around the pole. Circumpolar stars rotate around Polaris in the Northern Hemisphere.
How do the stars move at the North and South pole? horizontally
How do that stars move at the equator? Vertically.
How do stars move at mid-latitudes? Diagonally,on an arc across the sky.
Will the sun appear to move with respect to the constellations? Not in a day, but it will appear to have moved over the course of months or a year.
What are the 12 constellations the sun moves through in a year called? What is this path called? The zodiac. Ecliptic.
Precession Why your sign is wrong. Rotation of the Earth's axis itself; makes one complete circle in about 26,000 years.
Sidereal year Time for Earth to orbit once around the Sun, relative to fixed stars. It follows constellations.
Tropical year Time it takes for the Earth to be in the same configuration with respect to the Sun again (as opposed to distant stars). It follows seasons.
What will happen to the "summer triangle" in 13,000 years? It will be a winter constellation
Asterism Pattern of stars seen in Earth's sky which is not an official constellation.
Alpha Orionis Second brightest star in Orion
Messier Catalog An early listing of nebulae, star clusters, and deep sky objects that might have been confused with comets by users of small telescopes
Why don't many professional astronomers know the constellations? Because big telescopes can only look at small portions of the sky.
The pattern of rotation that stars make in the sky depends on your _____. Position.
What causes night and day? The earth's rotation on its axis.
Solar day Average time between consecutive "noontimes"
What defines a year? The revolution of the Earth around the Sun.
Ecliptic Path the Earth's motion around the Sun traces on the Celestial Sphere
T/F The sun is lower in the sky in the winter. True
Equinoxes Sun crosses the celestial equator (twice-- Spring & Fall)
Solstices Sun's farthest northernly or southernly position. (summer or winter)
Ecliptic Path that the sun follows in the sky. 23.5 degrees to the celestial equator
Northernmost point above the celestial equator Summer solace
Southernmost point below the celestial equator Winter solace
Points where paths cross celestial equator Vernal & autumnal equinoxes
Time from one vernal equinox to the next Tropical year
Season combination of day length and sunlight angle
Moon's revolution around the earth causes: Lunar phases, eclipses, tides
Synodic month moon takes about 29.5 days to go through whole cycle of phases
Phases are due to different amounts of sunlit portion being wisible from Earth
Lunar Eclipse moon disapears
Solar Eclipse sun disappears
Lunar eclipses occur when the moon enters the shadow of the earth
Umbra all sunlight blocked
penumbra only some sunlight blocked
total eclipse all of moon in umbra
partial eclipse only part of moon in umbra
penumbral eclipse moon only in penumbra
Solar eclipses occur when the Earth enters the shadow of the moon (moon blocks the sun"
Annular eclipse moon doesnt cover the whole sun
Why arent eclipses more frequent? The moon's orbit around the Earth is tilted so the Earth's orbits and the Moon's orbits are not in the same plane.
# solar eclipses per year at least 2, no more than 5
#Lunar eclipses per year maximum is 3
# combined eclipses per year maximum is 7
maximum duration of Solar eclipse 7 1/2 minutes
maximum duration of lunar eclipse 1 hour 47 minutes
Spring tide when tides from the sun and moon combine
Neap tide when the tides from the Sun and Moon counteract eachother
How many high tides are there per day? 2
Lunar phases during which tides are particularly strong New Moon & Full Moon
Region between Mars and Jupiter Asteroid belt
Asteroids large chunks of rock and metal left over from the formation of the solar system
Meteroids small asteroids. most are less than 1mm in diameter
Meteors flash you see when a meteoroid hits the Earth's atmosphere and gets burned up.
Meteorites pieces of meteoroids that make it thought the Earth's atmosphere without burning up
Comets Dirty snowballs. Ice and rock mixed together
2 comet tails Ion tail & dust tail. Point away from the sun.
2 primary reservoirs of comets Kuiper Belt & Oort Cloud
Kuiper Belt Flattened disk of solar system remnants out past Pluto.
Oort Cloud Spherical distribution of material even darther
The “Terrestrial Planets” include Earth, Mercury, Mars, Venus
Astronomers like to describe distances between planets in terms of AU
Planet that spins backwards Venus
Mercury and Venus exhibit ________________, much like our Moon. Craters
Mercury has extreme temperature differences from night to day, but is still _________than Venus, despite being closer to the Sun. Cooler
A day on Mercury takes ______ years, while undergoing _________ rotations. 2 years 3 rotations
Venus is so hot because of its very strong _______________ effect. Greenhouse
Oddly, the Earth’s _______________ north is not quite at the same place as the North Pole. Magnetic North
The Earth’s ___________________ protects us from the Solar Wind. Magnetosphere
Some particles get trapped in the _________________ Belts. Van Allen
When these overflow, we see _______________. an Aurora
Craters on the Moon are made by the same sort of ________________ impacts that we find on Earth. Meteor
Largest volcano in the Solar System. Olympus Mons
While the Sun has no surface, the outer layer that we see is called the Photosphere
Chromosphere layer just above the photosphere. Sort of the “lower atmosphere”
Corona above the chromosphere. Sort of a hot upper atmosphere
Sunspots Dark blotches ont he surface of the sun
Sunspots are linked by Pairs of magnetic field lines
What causes kinks? the rotation of the sun drags magnetic field lines around with it
Number of sunspots varies with time. 11 year cycle
What happens when the sun's magnetic field prevents hot, ionized material from rising? Dark sunspots result
When does the Sun's northern magnetic pole become the southern magnetic pole? after 11 years
Solar Flares eruptions in the Sun's atmosphere that cause energetic particles to escape from the sun
Coronal mass ejection emits charged particles that can affect the Earth
How do stars shine? nuclear fusion
Nuclear fusion the extra mass is converted to energy according the Einsteins famous formula, E=mc2
Hydrostatic Equilibrium Fusion keeps stars from collapsing under their own weight. Pressure from the outflowing hot gas balances the pressure of gravity
Stellar evolution big bang
A stars brightness is effected by its distance from the Earth
Inverse square Law Move 2x as far from a light and it gets 4x dimmer
Temperature of stars Color of a star is indicative of its temperature. Red- cool Blue- Hot
Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram any plot of brightness vs. color or temperature is and HR diagram
Percent of stars on "main sequence" 90%
Percent of stars are red giants 9%
Percent of stars are white dwarfs 1%
Main sequence stars are also called dwarfs
Red Giants much bigger than the sun, coolest
Supergiants bigger and brighter then the average giants
White Dwarfs Much smaller than the sun, very hot but not very bright, remnants of dead or dying stars
supernova star blown into smithereens
nebula supernova remnant
Pulsars type of neutron star emitting regular pulses of light
What happens when compressed gas from stars collides? New stars form
Galactic Cannicalism when two unequal size galaxies collide and merge
Quasars Active galaxies
Most big galaxies have supermassive _______ in their centers black holes
During a merger, what happens when fuel is fed into a black hole? A hot disk of material that spirals into the black hole. the disk shines brighter than the galaxy itself
Energy source of a Quasar black hole surrounded by an accretion disk
When did the universe begin? about 13.7 billion years ago
Cosmology study of the origin, structure, and evolution of the universe
Universe all matter, energy, and spacetime
Homogeneity Matter is uniformly spread throughout space
Isotrophy Universe looks the same in every direction
cosmological principle any observer in any part of the universe sees the same general features
Olber's Paradox If the universe is homogeneous, isotropic, infinite, and unchanging, the entire sky should be as bright as the surface of the Sun
Why is it dark at night? The universe is homogeneous and isotropic, it must not be infinite or unchanging
Hubble Flow The universe is not unchanging, it is expanding
Doppler effect motion through space-time
Created by: Jaz33
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