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Chapter Eight

diamond is a crystalline form of carbon in which each carbon atom is bonded strongly to four other carbon atoms
graphite each carbon atom is bonded tightly to three other carbon atoms in flat layers
fullerene carbon atoms arranged in a shape of hollow sphere
nanotube carbon atoms are arranged in the shape of a long hollow cylinder
organic compound can be found in living things, products made from living things, and materials produced artificially in laboratories
hydrocarbon is a compound that contains only the elemnts carbon and hydrogen
structural formula show the kind, number, and arrangement of atoms in a molecule
isomer compounds that have the same chemical formula but different structural formulas
saturated hydrocarbon each carbon atom filled up with hydrogen
unsaturated hydrocarbon hydrocarbons with double and triple bonds having fewer hydrogen atoms for each carbon atom
substituted hydrocarbon atoms of other elements replace one or more hydrogen atoms, They include halogen-containing compounds, alcohols, and organic acids
hydroxyl group -OH group made of hydrogen atom and oxygen atom. It can substitute for hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon
ester is a compound made by chemical combining an alcohol and an organic acid
polymer a very large molecule made of a chain of smaller molecules bonded together.
monomer the small molecules making up a polymer
protein are formed from smaller molecules called amino acids
amino acid is a monomer that is a building block of proteins.The properties depend on which amino acids are used and in what order
plastic synthetic polymers that can be molded or shaped are the most common products
composite combines two or more substances in a new material with different properties
carbohydrate is an energy-rich organic compound made of elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
glucose most important sugars in your body sometimes called blood sugar
complex carbohydrate is a polymer made of smaller molecules that are simple carbohydrates bonded to one another
starch plants store energy in the form of the complex carbohydrate
cellulose plants build strong stems and roots with this complex carbohydrate and other polymers
lipid are energy-rich compounds made of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen include fats, oils, waxes and cholesterol and release twice as much energy in your body as do carbohydrates and mix poorly with water
fatty acid all fats and oils are made with 3 and 1 alcohol named glycerol
cholesterol a waxy substance found in all animal cellsto build cell structure and serve as chemical messengers comes from animals not plants
nucleic acid are very large organic molecules made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid (nucleic acid)made of different kinds of small molecules connected in a pattern of nucleotides (4)
RNA ribonucleic acid (nucleic acid) made of different kinds of small molecules connected in a pattern of nucleotides (4)
nucleotide The building blocks of nucleic acids.
Created by: gayledains