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AP Chemistry

AP Chemistry Key Terms

Atoms subatomic particles that make up all objects.
Acid Anhydride Compound produced by dehydration of a carbonic acid; general formula is R--C--O--C--R
Acids A substance that produces H+(aq) ions in aqueous solution. Strong acids ionize completely or almost completely in dilute aqueous solution. Weak acids ionize only slightly.
Amino Acids Compound containing both an amino and a carboxylic acid group.The --NH2 group.
Atomic Mass Weighted average of the masses of the constituent isotopes of an element; The relative masses of atoms of different elements.
Chemical Equilibrium A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal; there is no net change in concentrations of reactants or products while a system is at equilibrium
Crystal Lattice Energy Amount of energy that holds a crystal together; the energy change when a mole of solid is formed from its constituent molecules or ions (for ionic compounds) in their gaseous state.Crystalline Solid
Ketone Compound in which a carbonyl group is bound to two alkyl or two aryl groups, or to one alkyl and one aryl group.
Saponification Hydrolysis of esters in the presence of strong soluble bases.
Silicons Polymeric organosilicon compounds; contain individual or cross-linked Si-O chains or rings in which some oxygens of SiO4 tetrahedra are replaced by other groups.
Standard Entropy The absolute entropy of a substance in its standard state at 298 K.
Entropy A thermodynamic state or property that measures the degree of disorder or randomness of a system.
Enthalpy The heat content of a specific amount of substance; defined as E= PV.
Equivalent Weight An oxidizing or reducing agent, who's mass gains (oxidizing agents) or loses (reducing agents) 6.022 x 1023 electrons in a redox reaction.The mass of an acid or base that furnishes or reacts with 6.022 x 1023 H3O+ or OH- ions.
Magnetic Quantum Number Quantum mechanical solution to a wave equation that designates the particular orbital within a given set (s, p, d, f ) in which a electron resides.
Meniscus The shape assumed by a liquid in a cylindrical container.
Molality Concentration expressed as number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Molarity Number of moles of solute per litre of solution.
Monoprotic Acid Acid that can form only one hydronium ion per molecule; may be strong or weak.Acid that contains one ionizable hydrogen atom per formula unit.
Molar Solubility Number of moles of a solute that dissolve to produce a litre of saturated solution
Created by: tbellwood16