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Organic Chemistry

This set of terms will grow as we progress through the unit

alkanes * have single bonds * considered Saturated
alkenes * have double bonds * considered Unsaturated
alkynes * have triple bonds * considered Unsaturated
Hydrocarbon an organic molecule that contains ONLY Hydrogen and Carbon
Homologous Series * Table Q * Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes * Members of a group of hydrocarbons that have the same general formula
General formula * CnH2n+2 for alkanes * CnH2n for Alkenes * CnH2n-2 for Alkynes
Saturated Has single bonds only
Unsaturated Has at least one double or triple bond
Addition reaction Starts with an UNSATURATED hydrocarbon and ADDS an atom to the site of the double or triple bond ** has ONLY ONE product
Substitution reaction Starts with a SATURATED hydrocarbon and replaces one atom with another. ** has TWO or more products
Complete Combustion reaction The burning of a hydrocarbon, in EXCESS of O2 CO2 and H2O are the products
Incomplete Combustion reaction The burning of a hydrocarbon with INSUFFICIENT O2 CO and H2O are products or just C and H20 can be products
Aldehyde Has a double bonded O ( =O ) on the 1st Carbon "Aldehyde on the side" CHO
Ketone Has a double bonded O ( =O ) on any Carbon other than the 1st "O is in the middle of the word Ketone" COCH
Alcohol contains an -OH group.
halide (halocarbon) Contains an element from the halogen group (17)
Ether Contains an O embedded in the parent chain ( C-O-C ) CHOCH
Ester Contains both a double bonded O ( =O ) and a single bonded O embedded in the chain COOCH
Organic Acid Contains BOTH an -OH and a double bonded O ( =O ) functional group. Must be together on the end carbon COOH
Amine Contains a N atom attached to the parent chain
Amide Contains both an N atom and a double bonded O ( =O ) attached to the end of the chain
Fermentation The production of an alcohol (has an -OH group) and CO2 from a sugar.
Created by: kleavitt