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CHEMISTRY- Chapter 8

Covalent Bonding

the energy required to break a bond between two covalently bonded atoms. bond dissociation energy
a molecular orbital that can be occupied by two electrons of a covalent bond. bonding orbital
a bond formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms. covalent bond
a covalent bond in which one atom contributes both bonding electrons. coordinate covalent bond
a molecule consisting of two atoms. diatomic molecule
a bond in which two atoms share two pairs of electrons. double covalent bond
a compound that is composed of molecules. molecular compound
a chemical formula of a molecular compound that shows the kinds and numbers of atoms present in a molecule of a compound. molecular formula
a neutral group of atoms joined together by covalent bonds. molecule
a solid in which all of the atoms are covalently bonded to each other. network solid
a covalent bond in which the electrons are shared equally by the two atoms. nonpolar covalent bond
a covalent bond between atoms in which the electrons are shared unequally. polar bond
a molecule in which one side of the molecule is slightly negative and the opposite side is slightly positive. polar molecule
a tightly bound group of atoms that behaves as a unit and has a positive or negative charge. polyatomic ion
a bond formed when two atoms share a pair of electrons. single covalent bond
valence-shell electron-pair repulsion theory, molecules adjust their shapes so that valence electron pairs are as far apart as possible. VSEPR theory
molecular compounds tend to have relatively ______ melting and boiling points. low
a molecular formula shows how many _______ of each _______ a molecule contains. atoms element
electron sharing occurs so that atoms attain the configurations of ______ ________. noble gases
in a coordinate covalent bond, the shared electron pair comes from a _______ atom. single
what does a large bond dissociation correspond to? a strong covalent bond
when different atoms bond, the more ___________ atom attracts electrons more strongly and acquires a slightly ___________ charge. electronegative negative
intermolecular attractions are ________ than either an ionic or covalent bond. weaker
melting a network solid requires breaking ________ bonds throughout the solid. covalent
ionic or covalent?MgCl2 ionic
ionic or covalent?Na2S ionic
ionic or covalent?H2O covalent
ionic or covalent?H2S covalent
predict shape and bond angle.SiCl4 tetrahedral, 109.5
predict shape and bond angle.CO3 2- trigonal planar, 120
predict shape and bond angle.CCl4 tetrahedral, 109.5
predict shape and bond angle.SCl2 angular, 105
the two weakest intermolecular attractions-dispersion interactions and dipole forces. van der waals forces
attractive forces in which a hydrogen covalently bonded to a very electronegative atom is also weakly bonded to an unshared electron pair of another electronegative atom. hydrogen bonds
atoms react by gaining or losing electrons so as to acquire the stable electron structure of a noble gas, usually eight valence electrons. octet rule
a covalent bond in which three pairs of electrons are shared by two atoms. triple covalent bond
the energy required to break a given chemical bond. bond energy
the distance between the nuclei of the two atoms connected by a bond. the distance where the total energy of a diatomic molecule is minimal bond length
energy released when a bond is formed. potential energy
a stable bond typically has _______ potential energy. high
which is most polar?HF, HCl, H2O, HBr HF
ions are always ________. polar
bonds that possess between 5% and 50% ionic character are considered to be _______ ________. polar covalent
a chemical bond between atoms results from the attraction between alectrons and ___________. protons
a covalent bond consists of ___________. a shared electron pair
if two covalently bonded atoms are identical, the bond is identified as _________ _________. nonpolar covalent
a covalent bond in which there is an unequal attraction for the shared electrons is ______. polar
atoms with strong attractions for electrons they share with another atom exhibit _______ ____________. high electronegativity
the greater the electronigitivity difference between two atoms bonded together, the greater the bond's percentage of ________ ___________. ionic character
the electrons involved in the formation of a chemical bond are called _____________. valence electrons
a chemical bond that results from the electrostatic attraction between positive and negative ions is called a(n) __________. ionic bond
if electrons involved in bonding spend most of their time closer to one atom rather than the other, the bond is __________. polar
if a bond's character is more than 50% ionic, then the bond is called a(n) ____________. ionic bond
a bond's character is more than 50% ionic if the electronegativity difference between the two atoms is greater than ______. 1.7
polar or nonpolar?H2O2 polar
polar or nonpolar?NO2 + polar
in polar bonds, the more electronegative atom... attracts electrons and gains a slightly negative charge
in covalent bonding, atoms attain the configuration of noble gases by... sharing electrons
the name of the bond formed when atoms share three pairs of electrons is... triple bond
when a shared electron pair comes from a single atom, the bond is a... coordinate covalent bond
molecular compounds tend to have relatively... low melting points and low boiling points
polar molecules tend to line up with their negative ends all on one side when... placed between oppositely charged plates
which combination of atoms would most likely produce a covalent bond?K, O /Cu, Se / N, F /Fe, S N, F
which of the following bond types is the weakest?ionic bond /Van der Waals force / covalent bond /hydrogen bond Van der Waals force
Created by: m.sickles04