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Chemistry Review

ESL

TermDefinition
Atom the smallest particle of matter that has the properties of one element
Electron very small negatively charged particle found inside an atom
Proton positively charged particle found inside the atom's nucleus; has same mass as a neutron
Neutron particle with no charge found inside the atom's nucleus; has same mass as a proton
Ion an atom that has lost or gained one or more electrons; is charged
Isotope atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
Valence outermost shell electrons of an atom
cation positively charged ion
anion negatively charged ion
compound a pure substance made up of two or more different elements in a fixed ratio
molecule a cluster of atoms that stick together as one particle
pure substance
mixture
homogeneous mixture
heterogeneous mixture
Particle Theory of Matter
Chemical Symbol a single capital letter with or without a lowercase letter; represents one element
Atomic number number of protons in the atom's nucleus
Atomic mass number of protons and neutrons in the atom's nucleus
Orbital shell = Energy level where electrons are found inside an atom
Nucleus small dense center of an atom; where protons and neutrons are found
Group (on Periodic table of Elements) a vertical column on periodic table of elements; a family of related elements
Period (on Periodic table of Elements) a horizontal row on periodic table of elements
Element a type of pure substance that cannot be broken down chemically
Chemical change a process that changes the particles of matter by rearranging their atoms
Physical change a process that changes the physical properties of matter while keeping the particles the same
Chemical formula shows the number of atoms and types of elements in a compound
Density mass per volume
neutral no charge; equal number of electrons and protons
precipitate a new solid formed inside a solution of two liquids
Created by: teresa.yang