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Statistics Terms Chapter 1-3

Descriptive Statistics consists of methods for organizing and summarizing information
Population collection of all individuals or items under consideration in a statistical study
Sample that part of the population from which information is obtained
Inferential statistics consists of methods for drawing and maturing the reliability of conclusions about a population based on information obtained from a sample of the population
Observational study researchers simply observe characteristics and take measurements, as in a sample survey
Designed experiment researchers impose treatments and controls and then observe characteristics and take measurements
Simple random sampling a sampling procedure for which each possible sample of a given size is equally likely to be the one obtained
Systematic Random Sampling 1) Divide population by sample size (m) 2) Use a random number (k) between 1 and m 3) select k, k+m...
Cluster Sampling Divide population into clusters, obtain a simple random sample of the clutters, use all members of the cluster as sample
Experimental Unit individuals or items on which the experiment is performed
subject experimental units are humans
Control two or more treatments should be compared
Randomization the experimental units should be randomly divided into groups to avoid unintentional selection bias in constituting the groups
Replication a sufficient number of experimental units should be used to ensure that randomization creates groups that resemble each other closely and to increase the changes of detecting any differences among the treatments
Treatment group group receiving the specified treatment
Control group group receiving the placebo
response variable characteristics of the experimental outcome that is to be measured or observed (what you're looking for)
Factor a variable whose effect on the response variable is of interest in the experiment
Treatment each experimental condition
Population ___ is almost always unreachable
Variable a characteristics that varies from one person or thing to another
Qualitative variable a non-numerically valued variable
Quantitative variable a numerically valued variable
Discrete variable a quantitative variable whose possible values can be listed (whole numbers)
Continuous variable a quantitative variable whose possible values form some interval of numbers (money, height, distances)
Data values of a variable
Resistant descriptive measure that is not sensitive to the influence of a few extreme observations (median)
68% Approximately __ of the observations lie within one standard deviation to either side of the mean.
95% Approximately __ of the observations life within two standard deviations of the mean
99.7% Approximately __ of the observations lie within three standard deviations of the man
outlier observations that fall well outside the overall pattern of the data
potential outliers observations that lie below the lower limit or above the upper limit are potential outliers
adjacent values the most extreme values that are not potential outliers; still fall within the lower and upper limits
Created by: mstreet