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Chem 03 Measurement

Terms associated with the SI System and Data.

broadly describes non-numeric properties qualitative
broadly describes numeric properties quantitative
2 parts of a measurement number & unit (usually)
2 factors that affect the quality of a measurement instrument quality; user skill
the quantity/value obtained from lab work experimental (E) value
'best available' measurement of a quantity (often obtained from a reference) accepted (A) value
equation for calculating % error (|A – E| ÷ A ) x 100%
how close you are (i.e. nearness to) the accepted value of a quantity accuracy
consistency of a set of measurements performed in the same way (or 'exactness' of an individual measurement in some situations) precision
measurement system used by scientists SI (International System)
reasons SI is better than the English system 1)used by scientists everywhere 2)more logically based (Earth/water properties) 3)numerical prefixes & based on multiples of 10 make conversions easier
SI prefix meaning "one thousand" kilo- (k)
SI prefix meaning "one thousandth" milli- (m)
SI prefix meaning "one hundredth" centi- (c)
SI prefix meaning "one tenth" deci- (d)
SI conversion mnemonic King Hector died by drinking chocolate milk! (others possible)
collectively, the simplest quantities measurable in SI base (fundamental) quantities
distance between 2 points length
SI unit of length meter (m)
device for measuring length ruler (meter stick)
quantity of matter (in a sample of matter) mass
SI unit of mass kilogram
device for measuring mass balance
interval between 2 events time
SI unit of time second (s)
'hotness' or 'coldness'; measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter temperature
SI unit of temperature kelvin
temperature scale based on the freezing and boiling points of water Celsius
equation for converting Celsius to Kelvin K = C + 273
freezing point of water on the Celsius scale? Kelvin scale? Fahrenheit scale? 0; 273; 32
normal boiling point of water on the Celsius scale? Kelvin scale? Fahrenheit scale? 100; 373; 212
human body temperature on the Fahrenheit scale? Celsius scale? 98.6; 37
collectively, the measurement quantities generated by using some combination of fundamental (base) quantities derived quantities
measurement of the size of a surface area
SI unit for area square meter
equation for finding area of a rectangle A = length x width
equation for area of a circle A = pi x radius squared
amount of space occupied by matter volume
equation for volume of a rectangular solid V = length x width x height
equation for volume of a cylinder V = area of base x height (for 'area of base' see equation for circle)
technique for determining the volume of rectangular solid by immersing water displacement method
some (at least 2) SI units for volume cubic meter, cubic decimeter, or cubic centimeter for solids; liter or milliliter for liquids; usually liters for gases
mass per unit volume density
SI unit of density for solids? liquids? gases? g/cm3; g/mL; g/L
density equation D = m/V
all the digits in a measurement known with certainty PLUS one final estimated (uncertain) digit significant digits (figures)
mnemonic for helping determine the # of significant digits (figures) in a measurement Atlantic-Pacific Rule
two situations in which rules for significant digits do not apply counted quantities; exact quantities defined by a system (ex: 1 m = 100 cm)
shorted form for writing very large of very small numbers using a coefficient and exponents (powers) of 10 scientific notation
exponent of 10 that yields the value 100? 1000? 10? 1? 0.1? 0.001? 2; 3; 1; 0; –1; –3
# of significant digits in the answer for this calculation: 5.50 x 2.13 3
# of significant digits in the answer for this calculation: 1.01 ÷ 2.0 2
# of significant digits in the quantity "25 students" eating lunch not applicable... this is a counted quantity so significant rules do not apply
curved surface of a liquid in a container such as a graduated cylinder meniscus
the density equation (D = m/V) rewritten to solve for "m"? for "V"? m = DV; V = m/D
Created by: goakley