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# Chem 03 Measurement

### Terms associated with the SI System and Data.

Question | Answer |
---|---|

broadly describes non-numeric properties | qualitative |

broadly describes numeric properties | quantitative |

2 parts of a measurement | number & unit (usually) |

2 factors that affect the quality of a measurement | instrument quality; user skill |

the quantity/value obtained from lab work | experimental (E) value |

'best available' measurement of a quantity (often obtained from a reference) | accepted (A) value |

equation for calculating % error | (|A – E| ÷ A ) x 100% |

how close you are (i.e. nearness to) the accepted value of a quantity | accuracy |

consistency of a set of measurements performed in the same way (or 'exactness' of an individual measurement in some situations) | precision |

measurement system used by scientists | SI (International System) |

reasons SI is better than the English system | 1)used by scientists everywhere 2)more logically based (Earth/water properties) 3)numerical prefixes & based on multiples of 10 make conversions easier |

SI prefix meaning "one thousand" | kilo- (k) |

SI prefix meaning "one thousandth" | milli- (m) |

SI prefix meaning "one hundredth" | centi- (c) |

SI prefix meaning "one tenth" | deci- (d) |

SI conversion mnemonic | King Hector died by drinking chocolate milk! (others possible) |

collectively, the simplest quantities measurable in SI | base (fundamental) quantities |

distance between 2 points | length |

SI unit of length | meter (m) |

device for measuring length | ruler (meter stick) |

quantity of matter (in a sample of matter) | mass |

SI unit of mass | kilogram |

device for measuring mass | balance |

interval between 2 events | time |

SI unit of time | second (s) |

'hotness' or 'coldness'; measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter | temperature |

SI unit of temperature | kelvin |

temperature scale based on the freezing and boiling points of water | Celsius |

equation for converting Celsius to Kelvin | K = C + 273 |

freezing point of water on the Celsius scale? Kelvin scale? Fahrenheit scale? | 0; 273; 32 |

normal boiling point of water on the Celsius scale? Kelvin scale? Fahrenheit scale? | 100; 373; 212 |

human body temperature on the Fahrenheit scale? Celsius scale? | 98.6; 37 |

collectively, the measurement quantities generated by using some combination of fundamental (base) quantities | derived quantities |

measurement of the size of a surface | area |

SI unit for area | square meter |

equation for finding area of a rectangle | A = length x width |

equation for area of a circle | A = pi x radius squared |

amount of space occupied by matter | volume |

equation for volume of a rectangular solid | V = length x width x height |

equation for volume of a cylinder | V = area of base x height (for 'area of base' see equation for circle) |

technique for determining the volume of rectangular solid by immersing | water displacement method |

some (at least 2) SI units for volume | cubic meter, cubic decimeter, or cubic centimeter for solids; liter or milliliter for liquids; usually liters for gases |

mass per unit volume | density |

SI unit of density for solids? liquids? gases? | g/cm3; g/mL; g/L |

density equation | D = m/V |

all the digits in a measurement known with certainty PLUS one final estimated (uncertain) digit | significant digits (figures) |

mnemonic for helping determine the # of significant digits (figures) in a measurement | Atlantic-Pacific Rule |

two situations in which rules for significant digits do not apply | counted quantities; exact quantities defined by a system (ex: 1 m = 100 cm) |

shorted form for writing very large of very small numbers using a coefficient and exponents (powers) of 10 | scientific notation |

exponent of 10 that yields the value 100? 1000? 10? 1? 0.1? 0.001? | 2; 3; 1; 0; –1; –3 |

# of significant digits in the answer for this calculation: 5.50 x 2.13 | 3 |

# of significant digits in the answer for this calculation: 1.01 ÷ 2.0 | 2 |

# of significant digits in the quantity "25 students" eating lunch | not applicable... this is a counted quantity so significant rules do not apply |

curved surface of a liquid in a container such as a graduated cylinder | meniscus |

the density equation (D = m/V) rewritten to solve for "m"? for "V"? | m = DV; V = m/D |

Created by:
goakley