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Lab Terminology

Chemistry Quiz

Electrolyte A substance dissolved in blood with a positive or negative charge.
3 primary electrolytes Sodium, Potassium, Chloride
Sodium Ttransmission of nerve and muscle impulses Normal value: 135-145 mEq/L
Hypernatremia Increased sodium
Hyponatremia Decreased sodium
Potassium Maintains electrical conduction in cardiac and skeletal muscles Normal value: 3.5-5.0 mEq/L KA
Hyperkalemia Increased potassium
Hypokalemia Decreased potassium
Chloride Works with sodium to maintain osmotic pressure in blood Normal value: 98-110 mEq/L
Hyperchloremia Increased chloride
Hypochloremia Decreased chloride
Glucose Major source of energy Normal values: 60-110 mg/dl
Hyperglycemia Increased blood sugar
Hypoglycemia Decreased blood sugar
Post-prandial glucose Blood sugar taken 2 hours after a meal
HbA1c Measures glycosylated hemoglobin Normal value: 2.2-4.8% Good diabetic control: 2.5-5.9% Fair: 6-8% Poor: over 8%
CO2 Adequacy of gas exchange in lungs and acid-base balance
BUN Blood urea nitrogen, reflects kidney function Normal value: 10-20 mg/dl
Creatinine Breakdown product of creatine, reflects Normal: 0.5-1.1 mg/dl
2 substances reflected in a total protein Albumin and globulin
Albumin Made in the liver, helps maintain osmotic pressure in blood 60% of total protein represented
Bilirubin Breakdown product of hemoglobin. Direct is water soluble, indirect is not. Normal value of total bilirubin: 0.3-1.0 mg/dl 2.5 mg/dl and over indicate jaundice.
Created by: sjewitt1