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Chem 00-02 Test

Intro to Chem, Scientific Method, Matter, Lab Safety/Equipment

study of matter: its composition, structure, & changes chemistry
branch of chemistry that studies the composition (make up) of matter analytical chemistry
branch of chemistry that studies noncarbon compounds (this course) inorganic chemistry
branch of chemistry that studies carbon-based compounds organic chemistry
branch of chemistry that studies chemical processes in living things biochemistry
branch of chemistry that studies the mechanisms of chemical change and energy changes that are involved (i.e. WHY does this react?) physical chemistry
studying chemistry to obtain knowledge for its own sake (purely academic) pure chemistry
using chemical knowledge for practical applications (ex: improving materials and cheical processes) applied chemistry (chemical technology)
a fact collected through senses (including measurements with tools) observation
a judgement based on experience inference
term referring to adjectives related to the sense of smell olfactory
term referring to adjectives related to the sense of taste gustatory
a scientific question to be considered, solved, or answered (scientific) problem
work backwards, eliminate possibilities, guess & check, look for a pattern, bring into simpler parts, construct a model, use an equation, plot a graph problem-solving strategies (know example of when you might use each?
structured problem solving process in science scientific method
possible solution to a scientific problem hypothesis
procedure designed to collect specific data about a scientific problem experiment
looking for meaning information or patterns in the data collected from an experiment analyzing
evaluating results of an experiment and making a final decision about whether or not the hypothesis was correct based on the data conclusion
describes a broad, often mathematical, pattern in nature - what happens scientific law
broad explanation for related scientific phenomena/laws - why it happens theory
'country skunk' mnemonic for remembering a list of components of the scientific method P.O.L.E.C.(H.)A.T.
an experiment in which only one quantity is adjusted by the experimenter controlled experiment
the quantity adjusted by the experimenter in a controlled experiment manipulated variable
the quantity observed/measured during a controlled experiment to see if change occurs responding variable
any quantity in a controlled experiment the is kept the same for all samples constant
untreated sample in a controlled experiment used for comparison control
Pick 1 and explain: What is the classroom procedure for a fire drill? tornado drill? code blue? know where the first aid kit is? know what to do if teacher is injured? left & out! right and kneel! under the desk (or in back room). cabinet behind door. contact teacher across hall.
Safety Rule #1: MOST IMPORTANT - to protect your eyes from chemicals, heated materials, or things that might shatter you should always... wear goggles in those labs
if you have worked with any hazardous chemicals or possible unclean glassware/equipment, what safety precaution should you take at the end of lab? wash your hands
Pick 1: Explain how to use these classroom safety features: goggles cabinet? eyewash? safety shower? fire extinguisher? fume hood? 'fire' blanket? UV & alcohol. flush 15, eyes open, contacts out. drench & disrobe. P.A.S.S.: pull, aim, squeeze, sweep. start, begin activity, lower window. wrap & roll.
Pick 1: How do you dispose of broken glassware? solid & liquid waste? test for odors? personally prepare to light burner? heat liquid in a test tube? fold filter paper? sweep up & put in box. place in containers in back. waft... tricky if stoppered bottle. tie up hair, roll loose sleeves, no dangling :) aim away & heat top (with in/out motion?). half, quarter, 3 folds to 1 side and open.
Identifying pictures of lab equipment examined in class/lab so far - which looks most like the letter "U" test tube (or maybe beaker)
What does 'MSDS' stands for (and can you answer questions about a specific example) Material Safety Data Sheet (Sure. I can read. Duh!)
anything that has mass and takes up space matter
the amount (quantity) of matter mass
the space matter occupies volume
matter that has definite shape and volume, closely spaced particles, and is incompressible solid
matter that has definite volume, variable shape, closely spaced particles, and is fairly incompressible liquid
matter that has no definite shape or volume, widely spaced particles, and is easily compressed gas
an electrically conductive (often high energy) gas such as that in fluorescent lights or the sun plasma
explains many behaviors of matter based on assumptions that it is made of tiny particles in constant motion affected by temperature kinetic theory
change of a solid into a liquid melting
change of a liquid into a solid solidification (freezing)
change of a liquid into a gas boiling (vaporization)
change of a gas into a liquid condensation
change of a solid directly into a gas sublimation
change of a gas directly into a solid deposition
phase (state) change temperatures (MP, BP) for water on the Celsius scale MP/FP: 0 BP/CP: 100
gray nonmetal element which sublimes to form a violet gas (as seen on video in class) iodine
any form of matter that has a uniform, set composition substance
substance made of only 1 kind of atom element
shorthand representation of chemical elements chemical symbol
If you remember all the symbols you were quizzed on - what are the symbols for lead, potassium, and sodium? Pb, K, Na
substance formed by 2 (or more) kinds of atoms joined in a set ratio compound
shorthand representation of a chemical compound chemical formula
numbers following and below symbols in the formula of a compound subscripts
any form of matter that can have a variable composition (ratio of ingredients) mixture
describes a mixture that is evenly distributed homogeneous
synonym for 'homogeneous mixture' solution
solid solution of 2 (or more) metals - ex: brass alloy
describes a mixture that is unevenly distributed heterogeneous
heterogeneous mixture that is a 'chunky' solid - pieces are easily distinguished - ex: granite conglomerate
heterogeneous mixture that 'settles' out over time - usually a solid in a liquid suspension
heterogenous mixture that exhibits the 'Tyndall effect' (scatters light) and does not settle out - ex: milk (an emulsion) colloid
Remember classifying actual samples of matter in class - How would you classify the "Particle Model" sketches containing •º8•º8? mixture of elements (8 = diatomic element)
any characteristic (trait) of matter property
describes a property that can be observed/measured without changing the composition of a substance physical
describes a property that is observed/measured during a reaction that changes the composition of the substance chemical
From the checklist of physical (P) and chemical (C) properties - classify: boiling point, solubility, corrosive, and flammable sure.
describes any change in a substance that does not alter its composition (ex: any change of state) physical
describes any change in a substance that does alter its composition, making a new substance with new properties chemical
Class of matter can be separated by using differences in the physical properties of the components mixtures
separation technique used to separate a mixture based on differences in solubility and attraction to a surface chromatography
separation technique used to separate a mixture of liquids based on differences in boiling points distillation
Statement: During all physical and chemical changes, mass remains constant (Lavoisier); OR, mass of reactants = mass of products Law of Conservation of Matter (or Mass)
a very specific chemical change in matter, written in the form: reactants --> products chemical reaction
This form of matter can only be separated by using a chemical change compounds
What is the mnemonic for the 5 evidences of chemical change and what each letter stands for? E.C.P.I.G.
chemical change that uses an electric current to separate a compound electrolysis
chemical change that uses heat to separate/break down a compound thermal decomposition
Pick 1: How do you can distinguish a compound from a mixture based on their: 1)composition 2)properties 3)formation/separation means? 1 )M: varies; C: set ratio 2)M: keep old; C: new set 3)M: physical blend; C: chemical change
(mostly) glassware lab equipment to know: beaker, evaporating dish, Erlenmeyer flask vs. Florence flask, graduated cylinder, mortar and pestle, test tube, watch glass
(mostly) metal lab equipment to know: forceps (tweezers), pipette, ring clamp, test tube holder, test tube rack, crucible tongs vs beaker tongs, utility clamp
Created by: goakley