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Chapter 12

Solutions

TermDefinition
Solution A homogenous mixture of two or more substances or components
Solvent The majority component of a solution
Solute The minority component of a solution
Aqueous Solution Water is the solvent, and a solid, liquid, or gas is the solute
Common Types of Solutions 1. Gaseous solutions.. 2. Liquid Solutions.. 3. Solid Solution
Gaseous Solution Solute Phase(gas)...Solvent Phase(gas)...Ex(Air(mainly oxygen and nitrogen))
Liquid Solution 1. Solute Phase(gas)...Solvent Phase(liquid)...Ex(club soda(CO2 and water)).. 2. Solute Phase(liquid)...Solvent Phase(liquid)...Ex(vodka(ethanol and water)).. 3. Solute Phase(solid)...Solvent Phase(liquid)...Ex(seawater(salt and water))
Solid Solution Solute Phase(solid)...Solvent Phase(solid)...Ex(brass(copper and zinc) and other alloys)
Solubility of a Substance The amount of the substance that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent
Entropy The measure of energy randomization of energy dispersal in a system. Energy has a pervasive tendency to spread out of disperse whenever it is not restrained from doing so
Intermolecular Forces in a Solution Exist Between 1. The solvent and solute particles.. 2. The solvent particles themselves.. 3. The solute particles themselves.. These forces may contribute to or oppose the formation of a solution
Solvent-solute Interactions The interactions between a solvent particle and a solute particles
Solvent-solvent Interactions The interactions between a solvent particle and another solvent particles
Solute-solute Interactinos The interactions between a solute particle and another solute particle
1. Relative Interactions and Solution Formation 1. If solvent-solute interactions > solvent-solvent and solute-solute interactions then SOLUTION FORMS.. 2. If solvent-solute interactions = solvent-solvent and solute-solute interactions then SOLUTION FORMS..
2. Relative Interactions and Solution Formation 2. If solvent-solute interactions < solvent-solvent and solute-solute interactions then SOLUTION MAY OR MAY NOT FORM, DEPENDING ON RELATIVE DISPARITY
Miscible The ability of two or more substances to be soluble in each other in all porportions
Steps Associated with Solution Formation 1. Separating the solute into its constituent particles(endo, +ΔH).. 2. Separating the solvent particles from each other to make room for the solute particles(endo, +ΔH).. 3. Mixing the solute particles with the solvent particles(exo, -ΔH)
Enthalpy of Solution(ΔHsoln) The overall enthalpy change upon solution formation... ΔHsoln = ΔHsolute(endothermic) + ΔHsolvent(endothermic) + ΔHmix(exothermic)
1. For Calculating Enthalpy of Solution(ΔHsoln) 1. If sum of the endothermic terms is about equal in magnitude to exothermic term, then ΔHsoln is about zero.. 2. If sum of the endothermic terms is smaller in magnitude than the exothermic term, then ΔHsoln is negative and solution process is exothermic
2. For Calculating Enthalpy of Solution(ΔHsoln) 3. If the sum of the endothermic terms is greater in magnitude than the exothermic term, then ΔH is positive and the solution process is enothermic
Heat of Hydration(ΔHhydration) The enthalpy change that occurs when 1 mole of gaseous solute ions are dissolved in water. ΔHsolvent and ΔHmix combined into a single term for aqueous solutions with an ionic compound dissolved in water
Calculating Heat of Solution with Heat of Hydration ΔHsoln = ΔHsolute + (ΔHsolvent + ΔHmix).. ΔHsoln = ΔHsolute(endothermic, positive) + ΔHydration(exothermic, negative)
|ΔHsolute| < |ΔHhydration| Amount of energy required to separate solute into constituent ions is less than energy given off when ions are hydrated. ΔHsoln is negative and solution process is exothermic... LiBr(S) --(H2O)--> Li^+(aq) + Br^-(aq) ΔHsoln = +25.67 kJ/mol
|ΔHsolute| > |ΔHhydration| Amount energy required to separate solute into constituent ions is greater than energy given off when ions are hydrated. ΔHsoln is positive and solution process = endothermic(if soln forms) NH4NO3(s) --(H2O)--> NH4^+(aq) + NO3^-(aq) ΔHsol = +25.67 kJ/mol
|ΔHsolute| =~ |ΔHhydration| Amount energy needed to separate solute into constituent ions is roughly equal to the energy given off when ions are hydrated. ΔHsoln =~ 0 and soln process is neither strictly endo or exothermic.. NaCl(s) -(H2O)-> Na^+(aq) + Cl^-(aq) ΔHsoln = +3.88kJ/mol
Dynamic Equilibrium For Solution Concentration When the rates of dissolution and recrystallization become equal
Saturated Solution A solution in which the dissolved solute is in dynamic equilibrium with any undissolved solute; any added solute will not dissolve
Unsaturated Solution A solution containing less than the equilibrium amount of solute; any added solute will dissolve until equilibrium is reached
Supersaturated Solution An unstable solution in which more than the equilibrium amount of solute is dissolved
Solubility and Temperature with Solids The solubility of most solids increases with increasing temperature
Recrystallization A technique used to purify solids in which the solid is put into hot solvent until the solution is saturated; when the solution cools, the purified solute comes out of the solution
Solubility and Temperature with Gases The solubility of gases in liquids decreases with increasing temperature
Effect of Pressure on Gas Solubility The higher the pressure of a gas above a liquid, the more soluble the gas is in the liquid
Henry's Law Sgas = kH * Pgas... where Sgas is solubility of the gas(usually in M), kH is constant of proportionality(called the Henry's law constant), depends on specific solute and solvent and also on temperature, and Pgas is partial pressure of gas(usually in atm)
Dilute Solution A solution containing small quantities of solute relative to the amount of solvent
Concentrated Solution A solution containing large quantities of solute relative to the amount of solvent
Molarity(M) The amount of solute(in moles) divided by the volume of solution(in liters)... Molarity(M) = [amount of solute(in moles)] / [volume of solution(in L)]... Unit: mol/L
Molality(m) The amount of solute(in moles) divided by the mass of solvent(in kilograms)... Molality(m) = [amount of solute(in mol)] / [mass solvent(in kg)]... Unit: mol/kg
Parts by Mass The ratio of the mass of the solute to the mass of the solution, all multiplied by a multiplication factor... [(mass solute) / (mass solution)] * multiplication factor
Percent by Mass Is a parts by mass concentration with a multiplication factor of 100... Percent by mass = [(mass solute) / (mass solution)] * 100... Ex: A solution with a concentration of 14% by mass contains 14 grams of solute per 100 g solution... Unit: %
Parts per Million(ppm) Is a parts by mass concentration with a multiplication factor of 10^6... ppm = [(mass solute) / (mass solution)] * 10^6... Unit: ppm
Parts per Billion(ppb) Is a parts by mass concentration with a multiplication factor of 10^9... ppb = [(mass solute) / (mass solution)] * 10^9... Unit: ppb
Parts per Thousand(ppt) Is a parts by mass concentration with a multiplication factor of 10^3... ppt = [(mass solute) / (mass solution)] * 10^3... Unit: ppt
Parts by Volume Usually a ratio of the volume of the solute to the volume of the solution, all multiplied by a multiplication factor... parts by volume = [(volume solute) / (volume solution)] * multiplication factor... Unit: (%, ppb, ppm, ...)
Mole Fraction(Xsolute) The amount of solute(in moles) divided by the total amount of solute and solvent(in moles)... Xsolute = {[amount solute(in mol)] / [total amount of solute and solvent(in mol)]} = [nsolute / (nsolute + nsolvent)]... Units: None
Mole Percent(mol %) The mole fraction x 100 percent... mol % = Xsolute * 100... Unit: %
Colligative Property A property that depends on the number of particles dissolve in solution, not on the type of particle
Raoult's Law An equation used to determine vapor pressure of a solution... Psolution = Xsolvent x P°solvent... Psolution is the vapor pressure of solution, Xsolvent is mole fraction of solvent, P°solvent is vapor pressure of the pure solvent at the same temperature
Vapor Pressure Lowering(ΔP) The difference in vapor pressure between the pure solvent and the solution... ΔP = P°solvent - Psolution
Ideal Solution A solution that follows Raoult's law at all concentrations for both solute and solvent
Freezing Point Depression The effect of a solute that causes a solution to have a lower melting point than the pure solvent. This is a colligative property
Boiling Point Elevation The effect of a solute that causes a solution to have a higher boiling point than the pure solvent. This is a colligative property
Calculating the Amount that the Freezing Point is Lowered ΔTf = m x Kf... where ΔTf is change in temperature of freezing point in Celsius degrees, usually reported as a positive number.. m is molality of the solution in moles solute per kilogram solvent.. Kf is freezing point depression constant for solvent
Calculating the Amount That the Boiling Point is Raised ΔTb = m x Kb... where ΔTb is change in temperature of boiling point in Celsius degrees(relative to boiling point of pure solvent).. m is the molality of solution in moles solute per kilogram solvent.. Kb is boiling point elevation constant for solvent
Osmosis The flow of solvent from a solution of lower solute concentration to one of higher solute concentration
Semipermeable Membrane A membrane that selectively allows some substances to pass through but not others
Osmotic Pressure The pressure required to stop the osmotic flow... π = MRT... where M is the molarity of the solution, T is the temperature(in Kelvins), and R is the ideal gas constant(0.08206 L*atm/mol*K)
van't Hoff Factor(i) The ratio of moles of particles in solution to moles of formula units dissolved... i = (moles of particles in solution) / (moles of formula units dissolved)
Calculating Freezing Point Depression, Boiling Point Elevation, and Osmotic Pressure for Ionic Solutions ΔTf = im x Kf (freezing point depression)... ΔTb = im x Kb (boiling point elevation)... π = iMRT (osmotic pressure)
Colloidal Dispersion(colloid) A mixture in which a dispersed substance(which is solute-like) is finely divided but not truly dissolved in a dispersing medium(which is solvent-like). If the particles are between 1 nm and 1000 n in size, the mixture is a colloid
Brownian Motion A colloidal particle exhibits Brownian motion, moving in a jerky, haphazard path as it undergoes collisions with other molecules
Micelle Structure In a micelle, the nonpolar tails of soap molecules are otiented inward(where they can interact with one another) and he ionic heads are oriented outward(where they can interact with the polar water molecules)
Tydall Effect The scattering of light by a colloidal dispersion
Created by: TimChemistry2