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Bonding / Properties

Definitions and key words

Ionic Bonding Transfer of electrons between a metal and a non-metal, where one becomes a positively charged ion and the other a negatively charged ion. They are held together by electrostatic attraction between the positive ion and the negative ion.
Valency The number of electrons that an element needs to lose, gain or share.
Compound ion Non-metals that join together to form groups which act as one thing.
Convalent Bonding A bond between 2 non-metals where electrons are shared for atoms to become stable resulting in a neutral molecule (no overall charge). The atoms are held together because each nucleus is attracted to the shared pair of electrons.
What are the five compound ions? Ammonium, Hydroxide, Nitrate, Sulphate, Carbonate
What is a diatomic molecule? Two atoms
Elements ending with - ine - change to what when they bond? -ide-
Elements ending with - ygen - change to what when they bond? -ide-
Name 3 types of metallic bonding Stainless Steel, Gold, Silver
Describe a Giant ionic lattice 3 dimensional structure of oppositely charged ions held together.
What 2 things are required for electrical conductivity? 1. Charged particle 2. Movement of particles (mobility)
If the differences are greater in electrostatic attraction what effect does this have on melting and boiling points? The larger the difference the stronger the electrostatic attraction which makes the bond more difficult to break, so they have higher melting and boiling points as more energy is required.
Are ionic substances soluble? Explain your answer. Yes - they are very soluble as ions are able to move. Water is a polar solvent and the positively charged ions are attracted to the end of the negatively charged ions of the water molecule and the negatively charged ions of the ionic substance are drawn
Do giant ionic lattices conduct electricity? Explain your answer. Yes, particles are charged and when they are melted or in water they are able to move.
What is a lone pair of electrons? These are an outer-shell pair of electrons not involved in bonding.
What is a Dative convalent bond? This is a shared pair of electrons where both electrons have been donated by one atom called the donor atom. The other that receives them is called the acceptor atom.
What must a donor atom have to form a dative convalent bond? It must have a lone pair of electrons.
What must an acceptor atom have to form a dative convalent bond? It must have space in its shells to accommodate a pair of electrons.
Define electronegativity The ability of an atom to attract the bonding electrons in a convalent bond. Attraction comes from a positive atomic core charge (the atom minus its outer electrons)
What is the core charge of an atom? This is the nucleus (protons) minus the filled inner shells of electrons (not the outer shell electrons).
What 2 factors increase electronegativity? 1. Higher core charge - Group 7 will be the highest 2. Smaller atom size - (less shells) core of atom is closer to shared electrons giving greater attraction.
Name the three types of multiple bonds? 1. Double bond 2. 2 double bonds 3. Triple bond
What kind of bond does 2 oxygen atoms have? Double convalent bond (shares 2 pairs of electrons)
What kind of bond does Carbon and Oxygen have 2 double convalent bonds (Carbon shares 2 pairs of electrons with 2 Oxygen atoms)
What kind of bond does 2 Nitrogen atoms have? Triple bond - shares 3 pairs of electrons.
Describe what a non-polar bond is Both atoms share electrons equally
Describe what a polar bond is Because of the large difference in electronegativity of the atoms, there is a different pull on the shared pair of electrons. The shared pair will be closer to one of the atoms because of the electrostatic attraction.
What is a permanent dipole This is a small charge difference across a bond because of the difference of electronegativity (polar bond)
Describe a Giant Convalent Lattice This is a 3 dimensional structure of atoms that are bonded together by strong convalent bonds.
Give two examples of different elements that form Giant Convalent Lattices 1. Diamond 2. Graphite
What are the boiling and melting points like for Giant Convalent Lattices and why? Very High as they have strong convalent bonds
What is the electrical conductivity like for Giant Convalent Lattices and why? Low as there are no charged particles
What is the exception for electrical conductivity of a Giant Convalent lattice and why? Graphite because it has one delocalised electron per carbon atom which moves freely across the layers and carries a negative charge.
Do Giant Convalent Lattices dissolve and gives reasons for your answer? They do not dissolve in polar or non-polar substances as the bonds are hard to break up because of the strong bonds.
Define Allotopes These are different forms of the same element
Name 3 elements that have allotropes Carbon, Oxygen and Phosphorus
Name 2 forms of Carbon that are allotropes 1. Graphite 2. Diamond
Describe the structure of Graphite It is a layered structure with 3 convalent bonds. Each carbon atom has one electron that is delocalised and moves freely between layers
What are intermolecular forces and are they strong or weak? These are what are between layers of the molecule and they are weak
Is Graphite hard? No, it is brittle because of the layers.
Describe the structure of Diamond This is a 3D structure with 4 strong convalent bonds
Is diamond soluble? No, it is hard to break
Does diamond conduct electricity and give a reasons for your answer? No, it is non-conductive as there are no charged particles.
Name two things diamond is used for and why? 1. Ring - can be polished to a shine, hardwearing 2. Cutting tool - hard and strong
Name something that graphite is used for and why? Pencil - the layers rub off on to paper.
Name two things a molecule needs to have a dipole 1. Difference in electronegativity between the atoms in its bonds 2. Must NOT be totally symmetrical
What element has the most electronegativity? Fluorine
Created by: saltpopcorn



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