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Chem 11 Final

Studystack for the Chemistry 11 Final Exam.

How many sig figs is 0.032? 2 sig figs
How many items in a mole? 6.02 * 10^23 items
The molar mass of an element is its atomic mass in _____. Grams
At STP, 1 mol of any gas occupies ___ L. 22.4L
What is the equation for percent composition? Percent comp. = (mass of component / mass of compound) * 100%
Is an empirical formula the smallest or largest whole number ratio of atoms in a compound? Smallest whole number ratio
What is the equation for finding the whole number multiplier when determining a molecular formula? Whole number multiplier = molar mass / empirical mass
If a crystal contains water, it is ______. If it does not contain water, it is anhydrous. Hydrated
Endothermic reactions require the input of energy, while _______ reactions release energy. Exothermic
List the 6 types of chemical reactions. Synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, double replacement, neutralization, combustion
What is the equation for percent yield? Percent yield = (actual yield / theoretical yield) * 100%
What is the equation for percent purity? Percent purity = (mass of pure / mass of impure ) * 100%
A reactant that limits the amount of product in a reaction is called a _____ reactant. Limiting reactant
Reactants that are NOT the limiting reactant are referred to as _____ Excess
The first chemist to attempt to organize the elements was John _____. He also developed the periodic law. John Newlands
The periodic law states that "When elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic mass, ____ and ____ properties repeat" Chemical and physical properties
Dmitri ______, a Russian chemist, published the prototype to today's periodic table of the elements. Dmitri Mendeleev
What is the name for a vertical column on the periodic table? Family or group
What is the name for a horizontal row on the periodic table? Period
Which of these is NOT a metalloid: B, Si, Ge, As, C, Sb, Te, Po, At? C (carbon)
Alkali metals react violently with which periodic group? Halogens
Alkaline earth metals react viOlently with which element? Oxygen
True / False: Halogen gases are extremely unreactive. False
True / False: Noble gases are the least reactive of all the elements. True
Ionization energy is the minimum energy required to _____ an electron from a gaseous atom or ion. Remove an electron
Does a large atom have high or low ionization energy? A large atom has low IE
Does a small atom have high or low ionization energy? A small atom has high IE
True / False: A high ionization energy means that it is easy to remove electrons False
As a general rule, do alkali metals or noble gases have higher ionization energies? Noble gases have higher IEs
The radius of an atom can be calculated by measuring the distance between the _____ of identical atoms and dividing by 2. Nuclei
Do atoms increase or decrease in size when moving down a family/group? Increase in size (more shielding)
Do atoms increase or decrease in size when moving across a period? Decrease in size (less shielding)
Average atomic mass is calculated using mass and ______ of different isotopes of an element. Abundance
The greek philosopher ______ believed that all substances were composed of individual particles Democritus
The greek philosopher _______ believed that matter was made up of 4 elements: water, air, earth, and fire. Aristotle
In 1803, John _____ revisited the idea that all matter was composed of atoms. John Dalton
J. J. Thompson discovered particles known as _______ and created the "plum pudding" model of the atom. Electrons
Ernest Rutherford discovered the proton and nucleus via ___ foil experiments. Gold foil
James Chadwick discovered heavy neutral particles called ______. Neutrons
Nelis ____ created the theory that electrons occupy discrete orbits around the nucleus, and had an atomic model named after him. Neils Bohr
Order the energy sublevels from greatest to least number of orbitals: p, d, s, f f, d, p, s
Quantum mechanics says that electrons have a certain _____ (chance) of being in any given point around the nucleus. Probability
The region of space around a nucleus where an electron is most likely to be found is called an _____. Orbital
Name the 4 quantum numbers and their symbols. Principal (p), Angular Momentum (s/p/d/f), Magnetic (m), Spin (s)
The Pauli Exclusion principle says that no 2 ______ in the same atom can be described by the same set of 4 quantum numbers. Electrons
When filling orbitals with electrons, are the highest or lowest energy levels filled first? The lowest energy levels are filled first
When taking electrons from an orbital to form a positive ion, electrons should be taken from orbitals in this order. P before S before D
Electronegativity is defined as the relative ability of a bonded atom to _____ shared electrons to itself. Attract
A difference in electronegativity from 0.4 to 1.7 means that this type of covalent bond will occur. Polar covalent.
Lewis diagrams use ___ to represent electrons. Dots
In a Lewis diagram, only ______ electrons are drawn. Valence electrons
When there are several correct Lewis structures of a molecule that can be drawn, we draw a _____ structure. Resonance structure
What does VSEPR theory stand for? Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory
VSEPR theory says that electron pairs are as _____ distributed around the central atom as possible. Evenly distributed
What shape would a molecule with 4 bonding pairs have? Tetrahedral
What shape would a molecule with 3 bonding pairs and 1 lone pair have? Trigonal bipyramid
What shape would a molecule with 2 bonding pairs and 2 lone pairs have? Bent
What shape would a molecule with 6 bonding pairs have? Octahedral
If bond dipoles in a molecule cancel each other out, the molecule is ______. Non-polar
If bond dipoles in a molecule reinforce each other, the molecule is _____. Polar
List the maximum amount of valence electrons that each of these elements can have: H, Be, P, S, B, Al H:2, Be:4, P:10, S:12, B:6, Al:6
List these bonds in order of strongest to weakest: London forces, ionic, non-polar, dipole-dipole, polar, hydrogen Non-polar, polar, ionic, hydrogen, dipole-dipole, London forces
Created by: Chthonian99