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Chapter 1

Introduction To Statistics

There Are 2 Types of Data 1. Quantitative Data.. 2. Qualitative Data
Quantitative Data These are numbers
Qualitative Data These are categories. Not numbers
There Are 2 Types of Quantitative Data 1. Discrete Data.. 2. Continuous Data
Discrete Data Whole numbers. Ex: The # people on the bus
Continuous Data These are decimals. If data could be a decimal, it is continuous. Ex: Weight of a whale in pounds
Population Every individual of interest. Doesn't have to be people
Parameter A number that describes some aspect of the population. Computed from population
Sample Subgroup of population
Statistic A number that describes some aspect of the sample
Levels of Measurement(4 levels) 1. Nominal.. 2. Ordinal.. 3. Interval.. 4. Ratio
Nominal Categories, cannot be ordered, most basic level. Ex: brand of shoe
Ordinal Categories, can be ordered, cannot do math operation with. Ex: quality rating of a Choco bar(bad, okay, good)
Interval Numbers, no true zero. Ex: temperature, time of arrival
Ratio Number, there is a true zero. Ex: # people who believe in aliens, cost of a Big mac, time it takes to eat a hotdog
Sampling Techniques 1. Random Sample.. 2. Simple Random Sample.. 3. Cluster Sample.. 4. Stratified Sample.. 5. Systematic Sampling.. 6. Convenience Sample
Random Sample Every individual from a population has equal chance of being selected
Simple Random Sample Every possible group of individuals has an equal change of being selected
Cluster Sample Divide population into groups, randomly select some of the GROUPS. Ex: There are 50 states and you randomly select 25 states(our sample is everyone in those 25 states)
Stratified Sample Divide population into groups, randomly select INDIVIDUALS from each group. Ex: Randomly select 10 people from each of the 50 states(our sample is 500 people)
Systematic Sampling Order the data, pick a starting point, select every 2nd, 3rd, 4th, etc. person. Ex: number names in phonebook then start with 3rd person then pick every 4th person(Sample is person 3, 7, 11, 15)
Convenience Sampling Uses data that is readily available. Don't want to get data this way usually. Ex: Theo surveys his best friends
Created by: TimStatistics