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Chapters 6, 8, 9

Energy, Chemical Reactions, Acids and bases

Compressibility A measure of the change in volume resulting from a pressure change.
Thermal Expansion A measure of volume change resulting from a temperature change.
Kinetic Energy Energy that matter possesses because of its motion. (Energy of Movement)
Potential Energy Energy associated with forces of attraction between objects. (Energy of Position)
Electrostatic interactions Attractions and repulsions that occur between charged particles.
Intermolecular Force An attractive force that acts between a molecule and another molecule. How molecules are attracted to others when mixed.
Dipole-Dipole Interaction An intermolecular force that occurs between polar molecules. (positive to negative)Relatively strong.
Hydrogen Bond An extra strong dipole-dipole interaction between a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to a small, very electronegative atom (N,O,or F) and a lone pair of electrons to another small, very electronegative (N,O, or F).
Solid State Physical state characterized by a dominance of potential energy over kinetic energy.
Liquid state The physical state characterized by potential energy and kinetic energy of about the same magnitude. Randomly packed, but relatively close.
Gaseous State The physical state characterized by a complete dominance of kinetic energy over potential energy. Move independently of one another. Fill their container.
Pressure The force applied per unit area. The total force divided by the area of that surface. The particles banging into container.
Boyle's Law Volume of a fixed amount of a gas in INVERSELY proportional to the pressure applied to the gas if the temperature is kept constant. P1 X V1 =P2 X V2 (Temp and Moles constant)
Charles's Law Volume of a fixed amount of gas is DIRECTLY proportional to its Kelvin temp. if the pressure is kept constant. V1/T1=V2/T2 (pressure and moles constant)
Combined Gas Law An expression obtained by combining Boyle's and Charles's laws. P1xV1/T1=P2xV2/T2(moles constant)
London Dispersion Force A weak temporary intermolecular force that occurs between an atom or molecule (polar or nonpolar) and another atom or molecule (polar or nonpolar) Very Weak Bond. Temporary charge because constantly moving.
Ideal Gas Law An equation that include the quantity of gas (moles) temp., pressure, and volume. PV=nRTR=0.0821 (contant)
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures Total pressure exerted by mixture of gases is the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases. P(total)=P1+P2+P3....
Partial pressure Pressure that a gas would exert if it were present alone under the smae conditions.
Change of state Process in which a subtance is transformed from one physical state to another. (6 Possible changes)
Sublimation Direct change from the solid to Gaseous State.
Deposition Direct change from the gaseous to the solid state.
Endothermic changes Require input (absorption) of heat; Melting, evaporation, sublimation.
Exothermic changes Release heat (heat given up); Freezing, condensation, deposition.
Evaporation The process of molecules escaping from the liquid phase to the gas phase.
Thermodynamics The amount of heat released or absorbed in a chemical reaction.
Equilibrium Rate Two opposite processes that take place at equal rates. (Evaporation and Condensation)
Vapor Gaseous molecules of a subtance at a temperature and pressure when normally thought of as liquid or solid, room temp. and atm. (molecules that escape water=water vapor)
Vapor Pressure Pressure exerted by a vapor above a liquid when the liquid and vapor are in equilibrium.
Volatile substance Substance that readily evaporates at room temperature because of a high vapor pressure.
Boiling Form of evaporation where conversion from the liquid state to vapor state occurs and produces bubble formation.
Boiling point Is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid becomes equal to the external (atmospheric) pressure exerted on the liquid. Fluctuates with atm.
Normal boiling point The temperature at which a liquid boils under a pressure of 760 mm Hg.
Conditions that affect boiling point atm, elevation, external pressure affect what?
Chemical Reaction Process where at least one new product is produced as a result of chemical change
Combination/Synthesis Reaction Single product produced from 2 (or more) reactants. X + Y = XY
Decompositon Reaction Single reaction converted into two (or more)simpler substances (elements or compounds) XY = X + Y
Single Replacement Reaction X + YZ = Y + XZ
Double Replacement Reaction Two reactants exchange parts.XA + YB = XB + YA
Combustion Reaction A reaction of a substance with oxygen (usually air) that proceeds with heat and usually flame. Combination reaction. Exothermic. Needs oxygen, creates H2O, and CO2. C3H2 +5O2 = 4CO2 + 2H2O
Redox Reactions Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Oxidation-Oxygen based Redox Process whereby a reactant in a chemical reaction gains one or more oxygen atoms.
Reduction-Oxygen based Redox Process whereby a reactant in a chemical reaction loses one or more oxygen atoms
LEO goes GER (Electron Redox) Lose electrons oxidation; Gain electrons Reduction
oxidation-reduction reaction A chemical reaction in which there is a transfer of electrons between reactants
Non-oxidation-reduction reaction A chemical reaction in which there is NO transfer of electrons between reactants
Oxidizing agent Causes oxidation by accepting electron from other reactant. (GER, or reduced substance)
Reducing agent Causes reduction by providing electrons for the other reactant to accept. (LEO, Oxidized subsantance)
Collision Theory- Conditions must be met before a chmical reaction will take place (3)1. Where two things must slam together for a reaction to occur.2. Activation energy-needed for reaction (heat)3. Orientation-particles must line up for collision to occur
Activation Energy Minimum combined kinetic energy that reactant particles must possess in order for collision to result in a reaction
Molecular collisions Reactant particles must collide for reaction to occur.
Collision orientation Molecules must line up right to collide.
Exothermic Reaction Releases heat (kinetic energy) into the surroundings. Energy is released as reaction occurs.
Endothermic Reaction Reaction that absorbs energy from the surroundings. Requires input of energy.
Heat Actual kinetic energy.
Rate of chemical reaction Rate reactants are consumed or products are produced. 1. nature of reactants (state, and size) 2. Concentration (increase concentration, increases rate of reaction.) 3. Temperature (heat) 4. Catalyst
Temperature A measure of the average kinetic energy of all the particles.
Catalyst Substance that increases the reaction rate without being consumed in the reaction. Alternate route need lower activation energy. Enzymes are catalysts
Chemical equilirium Two opposing chemical reactions occur simultaneously. Doesn't have to be 50/50 mix.
Reversible reaction Used to discuss chemical equilibrium. Rate of forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction-
Le Chatelier's principle If a stress is applied to a system at equlibrium, the system will work to counteract that change and reestablish equilibrium.
Arrhenius Theory Theory that:Acids donate [H+] protons and Bases donate [OH-] hydroxide
Bronsted & Lowry Theory Acid: Donate [H+]=Proton DonorBase: Accept [H+]=Proton Acceptor
Ionization Individual positive and negative ions are PRODUCED from a compund dissolved in solution.
Dissociation Individual positive and negative ions are RELEASED from a compund dissolved in solution.
Arrhenius Acid sour taste, blue paper red
Arrhenius Base Bitter taste, Red paper turns blue
Conjugate Acid-base pair Species that differ by one proton
Conjugate base Species that remains when an acid loses a proton.
Conjugate Acid Species formed when a base accepts a proton.
monoprotic acid An acid that transfers one [H+] ion per molecule during an acid-base reaction
diprotic acid an acid that transfers 2 [H+]ions per molecule during an acid-base reaction
triprotic acid an acid that transfers 3 [H+]ions per molecule during an acid-base reaction
polyprotic acid an acid that can transfer two or more [H+]ions per molecule during an acid-base reaction
Strong Acid A substance that transfers 100% or very nearly 100% of its protons to water.
Weak Acid A substance that transfers only a small % of its protons to water.
Salt An ionic compound containing a metal or polyatomic ion as the positive ion and a non-metal or polyatomic ion (except OH-) as the negative
Neutralization the reaction between an acid and a hydroxide base to form a salt and water. (Either a double replacement or proton transfer reaction)
Acidic solution solution where the concentration of H3O+ ions is higher than OH- ions.
Basic Solution solution where the concentration of OH- ions is higher than H3O+ ions.
Neutral Solution Equal concentrations of H30+ and OH- ions in a solution
pH -log[H3O+] ;negative logarithum of solutions molar hydronium ion concentration.
Buffer A solution that resist major changes in pH when small amounts of acid or base are added to it. Will resist pH change until you overcome it.
acid-base titration A measured volume of an acid or a base of known concentration is exactly reacted with a measured volume of a base or an acid of unknown concentration
Indicator A compound that exhibits different colors depending on the pH of its surroundings.
Created by: janybee