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chichester quiz 3, chapter 8-10 chemistry

change of state transofrmation of a substance from 1 state to another is called this
What is the kinetic-molecular theory of gases? the physical behavior of gases can b explained y assuming that they consist of particles moving rapidly at random, seperated from other particles by great distance and colliding without loss of energy
What are the gas laws? boyle's law, charle's law, gay-lussac's law,combined gas law, avogadros law
what is boyle's law? the volume of a fixed amount of gas at constant temperature is inversly propoortional to its pressure P1V1= P2V2
What is charles law? the volume of a fixed amount of gas at constant pressure is directly proportional to its kelvin temperatue (V1/T1)=(V2/T2)
What is gay-lussacs law? the pressure of a fixed amount of gas at constant volume is directly proportional to its kelvin temperature (p1/t1)=(p2/t2)
what is the combined gas law? boyles/charles/gay lussac law (p1v1/t1)=(p2v2/t2)
what is avogadros law? equal volume of gases at the same temp and pressure contain the same number of moles (v1/n1)=(v2/n2)
what is the ideal gas law? the four gas laws together give this, PV=nRT, which relates the edfects of temp, prrssure, volume and molar amount
what is partial pressure? the amount of pressure exerted by an indiviudal gas in a mixture called the partial pressure of the gasaccording to daltons law, the total pressure exertrd by the mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the individuals gases
What are the major intermolecular forces? there are 3 intermolecular forces: dipole dipole, london dispersion, and hydrogen bonding
what is an intermolecular force they act to hold molecules near one another in solids and liquids
what is a dipole dipole force electrical attractions that occur btwn polar molecules
what is a london dispersion force? they occur between all molecules as a result of temporary molecular polarities due to unsymmetrical electron distriibution
what is hydrogen bonding? the strongest of thhe three forces, and occurs between a hydrogen atom bonded to O,N or F and a near by O,N or F atom
What are the various kinds of solids and how do they differ? crystalline solids, amorphous solids, molecular solids, metallic solids, ionic solids,covalent network solids
wha are crystalline solids? those whose consituent particles have an ordered arrangemment
what are amorphous solids? they lack internal order and do not have sharp melting points
what are ionic solids? 1 of the crystalline solids- and are those like sodium chloride whose constituent particles are ions
what are molecular solids? part of the crystalline solids- are those like ice, whose constituent particles are molecules held together by intermolecular forces
what are covalent network solid? are those like diamond, whose atoms are linked together by covalent bonds into a ginat 3D array
what are metalllic solids? such as silver or ion, also consist of large arrays of atoms, but their crystals have metallic properties such as electrical conductivity
what occurs during a change of state?? at melting point, liquid becomes solidheat of fusion is amount of heat necessary to melt a given amount of a solid at its melting point
what is boiling point? liquid becomes gas
what is heat of vaporization amount of heat necessar to vaporize a liquid at boiling point
sublimation solid straight to a gas
Whats the def of kinetic-molecular theory of gases? a group of assumptions that explain the behavior of gases
ideal gas a gas that obeys all the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory
pressure (p) the force per unit area pushing against a surface
Gas laws a series of laws that predict the influence of pressure, volume and temperature on any gas or mixture of gases
gas constant the constant R in the ideal gas law, PV=nRT
Partial pressure the contribution of a given gas in a mixture to the total pressure
vapor the gas molecules in equilibrium with a liquid
vapor pressure partial pressure of gas molecules in equilibrium with a liquid
normal bioling point the boiling point at a pressure of exactly 1 atmosphere
how is the concentration of a solution expressed? molarity, weight/weight % composition, weight/volume % composition, and ppm
how are dilutions carried out? adding more solvent to an existing solution M1V1=M2V2
what is an electrolyte? substances that form ions when dissolved in water and whose water solutions therefore conduct an electric currents called these
how do solutions differ from pure solvents in their behaviors? the solution has a lower vapor pressure at a given temp, a higher BP anda lower MP,
what is osmosis? occurs when solutions of diff concentration are seperated by a semipermeable membrane that allows solvent molecule sto pass but blocks passage of solute ions and molecules
heterogenous mixture a nonuniform mixture that has regions off different composition
homogenous mixture a uniform mixture that has the same composition throughout
solution a homogenous mixture that contains particles of a size of a typopical ion or small moleculee
colloid a homogenous mixture that contains particles in the range2-500 nm diameter
solute a substaance dissolved in a liquid
solvent the liquid in which another substance is dossolved
solvation the clustering of solvent molecules around a dissolved soute molecules or ion
hygroscopic haviing the ability to pull water molecules from the surrounding attmosphere
miscible mutually solble in all proportions
saturated solution a solution that contains the max amount of disolved solute at equilibrium
solubility the max anmount of a asubstance that will dissolve ina given amount of solvent at a specified temperature
supersaturated solution a solution that contains more than t he maximum amount of dissolved solute;a noneqquilibirum situation
dilution factor the ratio of the initial and final solution volumes (v1/v2)
strong electrolyte a substance that ionizes completely when dissolved in water
weak electrolyte a substance that is only partially ionized in water
nonelectrolyte a substance that doesnt prodcue ions when dissolved in water
colligative property a property of a solution that depennds only on the number of dissolved particles, not on their chemical identity
osmotic pressure the amount of external pressure aplplied to the more concentrated solution to halt the passage of solvent molecules across a semipermeable membrane
osmolarity (osmol) the sum of the molarities of all dissolved particles in a solution
isotonic having the same osmolarity
hypotonic having an osmolarity less than the surrounding blood plasma or cells
hypertonic having an osmolarity greater than the surrounding blood plasma or cells
what are acids and bases? an acid is a substance hat donates a hydrogen ion and a base accepts a hydrogen ion
what effect does tthe strength of acids and bases have on their on reactions? a strong acid gives up a proton easilya weak acid gives up a proton with difficultya strong base accepts and holds a proton readilya weak base has a low affinity for a proton
whatt is the ion-product constant for water? water can act as either an acid or base
what is the pH scale for measuring acidity is given by uts pH below 7= acidic; 7=neutral, above 7-basic
how is thw acid or base concentration of a solution determined? acid (or base) concentrations are determined in the lab by titration of a solution of unknown concentration with a base (or acid) solution of known strength
hydronium ion the h3o+ ion, formed when an acid reacts with water
bronsted-lowry acid a substance that can donate a hydrogen ion, H+, to another molecule or ion
bronsted-lowry base a substance that can accept H+ from an acid
conjugate acid-base pair two substances whose formulas differ by only a hydrogen ion, H+
conjugate base the substance formed by loss of H+ from an acid
conugate acid the substance formed by addition of H+ to a base
amphoteric a substance that can react either as an acid or a basr
strong acid an acid that gives up H+ easily and is essentially 100% dissociated in water
dissociation the splitting apart of an acid in water to give H+ and ? an anion
weak acid an acid that gives up H+ with difficulty and is less than 100% dissociated in water
weak base a base that has only a slight affinity for H+
strong base a base that has a high affinity for H+ and holds it tightly
pH a measure of the acid strength of a solution; the negative common logarithm of hte H3O+ concentration
acid-base indicator a dye that changes color depending on the pH of a solution
titration a procedure for determining the total acid or base concentration of a solution
acid dissociation constant (Ka) he equilibrium constant K and the water concentration together to make a new constant called this
ion prodcut constant for water (Kw) the acid dissociation constant Ka and the water concentration toghether to make a new constant called this
normality (N) the number of equivalents of acid or base per liter of solution
Created by: melissan15