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Chem 107 Vocab

TermDefinition
Acid A compound which will cause an excess of hydrogen ion to form in solution.
Acidic A solution in which there exists an excess of hydrogen ion so that the pH is less than 7.
Activation Energy A minimum amount of energy that a reactive mixture must contain before molecules (reactants) can collide with sufficient velocity to rearrange bonds and form new molecules (Products).
Amphoteric A compound that will dissolve in both acids and bases better than it will in water.
Analysis The procedure of testing a material to find out either what it contains (qualitative) or how much of a given material it contains (quantitative).
Anion An atom or group of atoms acting as a single entity with a net negative charge.
Aqueous The major component of the material (solution) is water.
Base A compound which will accept a proton from an acid.
Basic A solution which contains a base so that the pH is greater than 7.
Buret A device with a graduated body and a stopcock or control valve which allows the delivery of variable, but measurable, volumes of a liquid.
Calorimetry The science involved in measuring the energy transfers that occur between materials at different temperatures or during a chemical reaction.
Cation An atom or group of atoms acting as a single entity with a net positive charge.
Centrifuge An instrument for spinning containers of solution at high velocities so that solid particles will be forced to the bottom of the container.
Complex An ion in which a central metal cation has bonded with a number of other ions or molecules by accepting electron pairs from the other groups into empty orbitals on the central ion.
Decant A process of pouring off the fluid above a precipitate into a second container so that solid and solution are separated.
End Point The point in a titration when exactly the same number of moles of each of the reacting solutions are present in the mixture that was formed by the titration process.
Endothermic Energy is absorbed by the reacting system from the surroundings, so that the system appears to cool down.
Equilibrium A dynamic situation in which both a forward and reverse reaction are happening at the same rate, so that macroscopic observation of concentrations does not detect any change in the system.
Excess A term indicating that more reactant is added to a system than is necessary to react with the amount of material present in the container.
Exothermic Energy is released by the reacting system to the surroundings, so that the system appears to heat up.
Formality A concentration term with the units of moles/liter but which refers to the absolute amount of material used to make the solution rather than the actual amounts that may be present in the solution. We will use it interchangeably with molarity in our uses.
Insoluble A relative term which indicates that only very small amounts of a material can be dissolved in a given solvent. If large amounts of the material’s components are introduced to each other they will react and come out of the solution as a solid.
Laboratory A room or space specifically designed and constructed for the conduct of scientific experiments.
Ligand An ion or molecule which has at least one lone pair of electrons which it will share with a metal cation to form a bond.
Melting Point The temperature at which the last observable crystal of a material melts.
Molarity A concentration term with the units of moles of solute/liter of the solution. This unit is temperature dependent.
Net Ionic Equation An equation representing the exact nature of a chemical reaction by involving the formulae of only those species which actually participate in the reaction. All other materials in the container are ignored.
Neutral A term indicating that a solution contains equal numbers of acid and base ions.
Neutralization A process of mixing acids and bases until the neutral condition is achieved.
Order A term from kinetics that refers to the exponential number associated with the concentration of a species that affects the overall rate of the reaction. Indicates the effect that changing the concentration has on the measured rate of the reaction.
Partial Pressure the pressure given by one of the gases in a container. calculated by multiplying the the mole fraction by the total pressure (dalton)
Pipet A specially designed piece of volumetric glassware designed specifically to deliver a single volume of liquid very accurately.
Precipitate (noun) The solid material formed when two solutions containing components which are insoluble in each others company.
Precipitate (verb) The process of a solid forming in a container of mixed solutions and falling to the bottom of the container.
Precipitation Reaction A reaction which will mix two or more components to form an insoluble product.
Qualitative A term referring to a description of a material that relies only on description of the properties of the material, such as color, state, solubility in general terms, and so on.
Quantitative A term referring to a description of a material that relies on description of the quantities of the material present.
Rate Constant A mathematical proportionality constant added to the equation that relates the rate of the reaction to the concentrations of all species that influence the rate.
Rate Law A mathematical equation that expresses the dependence of the rate of the equation on the rate constant and the concentrations of all species that influence the rate. The equation takes the form: Rate = k[A]m[B]n…
Rate of Reaction A measurement of the time dependence of the change in concentration of the various species during the course of a chemical reaction.
Saturated A term indicating that a solution contains as much of a particular solute as it can under the prevailing conditions.
Solubility A term describing the relative amount of a solute that can be dissolved in a fixed quantity of solvent. The information is usually quantified in grams/100 mL or moles/liter.
Soluble A term used to indicate that significant quantities of a solute can be dissolved into a particular solvent.
Solute A material which will disperse throughout a solution during the dissolution process.
Solution A mixture of two or more materials which is homogeneous to the microscopic level. The material present in largest amounts is usually considered the solvent, all others as solutes.
Solvent A material capable of acting as a matrix within which other materials can be dissolved.
Spectator Ion When two solutions are mixed, one or more species from each solution may react with ions from the second reaction. Ions which are not involved in any such reactions are referred to as spectator ions.
Supernatant A liquid above a solid material in a container.
Surroundings A thermodynamic term describing all or part of the universe left over after we have defined a particular portion of the universe for study.
System A small portion of the universe defined precisely as the region of the universe to be studied.
Thermal Equilibrium A term indicating that any number of objects in physical contact have the same temperature, so there is no energy transfer between the objects.
Titration A process in which a measurable quantity of solution is delivered from a buret into a known volume (pipetted) of a second liquid. usual objective is to add as many moles of material from the buret as were present in the fixed volume of the other material.
Vapor Pressure The pressure exerted by the vapor-phase molecules is called the vapor pressure of that liquid. The liquid begins to boil when it’s vapor pressure reaches 1 atmosphere.
Wash A term describing the process of stirring a precipitate in a small volume of pure water, centrifuging the mixture, then discarding the water. The objective is to remove small amounts of solution containing unwanted ions from the surface of the solid.
Waste Any solution or mixture that is left over at the end of an experiment or procedure that is no longer wanted. All wastes must be disposed of in approved methods.
Created by: ksheehy96