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Chapter 1 and 14


qualitative variables variables that can be placed into distinct categories, data is not numbers
quantitative variables numerical and can be ordered or ranked
statistics the science of conducting studies to collect, organize, summarize, analyze, and draw conclusions from data
How statistics is used in everyday life? 1.used in fields of human endeavor-sports, public health, and education 2.analyze the results of a survey 3.a tool in scientific research to make decisions based on controlled experiments 4.operations research, quality control estimation, predictions
Reason students study statistical studies 1.to be able to understand statistical studies 2.to be able to conduct research, design experiments, make predictions and communicate results 3.to become better consumers
variable a characteristic or attribute that can assume different values
data the values the variables assume
random variables variables whose values are determined by chance
data set collection of data values
data value each value of the data set
descriptive statistics consists of the collection organization, summarization, and presentation of data
inferential statistics consists of generalizing from samples to populations performing estimations and hypothesis test, determining relationships among variables, and making predictions
uses probability the chance of an event occuring
sample group of all subjects that are being studied
hypothesis testing decision making process for evaluating claims about a population based on information from samples
discrete variable variables that assume values that can be counted such as # of children
continuous variable variables that can assume an infinite number of values between any two specific values. They are obtained by measuring-often contain fractions and decimals
Nominal level of measurements classifies data into mutually exclusive (nonoverlapping) exhausting categories in which no order or ranking can be imposed on the data
Ordinal level of measurements classifies data into categories that can be ranked, however, precise differences between the ranks do not exist
interval level of measurements ranks data and precise differences between units of measure do exist, however, there is no meaning true zero
ratio level of measurements possesses all the characteristics of interval measurement and there exists a true zero
surveys telephone, mailed questionnaire, personal interview
random sampling selected by using chance methods or random numbers
systematic sampling obtained by numbering each subject of the population and then selecting every kth subject
stratified sampling obtained by dividing the population into groups (called strata) according to some characteristics important in the study. Then get hte sampling from each group.
cluster sampling selected by dividing the population into intact groups called clusters that is representative of the population. Then some of these clusters are selected at random and all members of the selected cluster are subjects
convenience sampling may not be representative but can be
unbiased sampling chosen at random from a population
biased sampling selected incorrectly an error was made in the selection
sequential sampling used in quality control successive units taken from the production line and sampled to ensure the product meets the standards
double sampling large population is given a questionnaire to see who meet the requirements for the study, after reviewing the questionnaire a smaller population is defined and a sample is chosen from this pop.
observation study researcher merely observes what is happening and draws conclusions
experimental study researcher manipulates one of the variables
Kinds of experimental study true experimental and quasi-experimental
true experimental subjects should be assigned to to groups randomly and treatment s assigned randomly
quasi-experimental study when random assignments are not possible
independent variable Explanatory variable-the one that is being manipulated
dependent varibable Outcome variable-resultant variable-the variable
treatment group group that receives the treatment
control group group that doesn't receive the treatment
Created by: shuber15