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Chemistry Midterm

A stack to study for my science midterm on the chemistry unit

QuestionAnswer
What charge does a neutron have? No charge
What charge does an electron have? Negative charge
What charge does a proton have? Positive charge
What is in the nucleus of an atom? Protons and neutrons
The nucleus of an atom is what compared to the rest of the atom? Very small
What is the formula for atomic mass? Protons+Neutrons
What are isotopes? Atoms that have different numbers of neutrons than the periodic table suggests
Rows on the periodic table are called... Periods
Columns on the periodic table are called... Groups
What are the six flavors of quarks? Up, down, strange, charmed, top, bottom
Metals are good conductors of what? Heat and electricity
What does it mean to be malleable? It (a metal) can be bent and pounded into lots of shapes
What does it mean to be ductile? It (a metal) can be drawn into wires without breaking
What is a compound? A substance whose smallest unit is made up of more than one element bonded together
What is a mixture? When two or more substances come together but don't combine to make a new substance
Ionic bonding occurs between what kinds of elements? Metals and nonmetals
Covalent bonding occurs between what kinds of elements? Two nonmetals
What is a physical property? A characteristic of a material that can be observes or measured without changing the identity of the material
Which state of matter has a fixed position and particles close together? Solid
Which state of matter has particles moving fast enough that they can move past each other so the matter can take the shape of the container? Liquid
Which state of matter has particles moving fast and freely so that they take up as much space as possible? Gas
The phase change of liquid to solid is called what and does it absorb or release energy? Freezing; Release
The phase change of solid to liquid is called what and does it absorb or release energy? Melting; Absorb
The phase change of liquid to gas is called what and does it absorb or release energy? Evaporation; Absorb
The phase change of gas to liquid is called what and does it absorb or release energy? Condensation; Release
The phase change of gas to solid is called what and does it absorb or release energy? Sublimation; Release
The phase change of solid to gas is called what and does it absorb or release energy? Deposition; Absorb
What does like dissolves like mean? Polar solutes dissolve polar solvents and nonpolar solutes dissolve nonpolar solvents
Polar bonds are... Assymetrical
Nonpolar bonds are... Symmetrical
In liquid-solid solutions when you increase temperature the sollubility... Increases
In liquid-gas solutions when you increase temperature the sollubility... Descreases
What are acids? Substances that release positive hydrogen ions, hydonium ions
What are bases? Substances that accept hydrogen ions and when when combined with water releases hydroxide ions, OH-
Acids have a pH that is... Below 7
Bases have a pH that is... Above 7
Water has a pH of... 7
What is a chemical reaction? A process that produces a chemical change?
What is the law of conservation of mass? The mass of the products must be the same as the mass of the reactants
What are waves? A disturbance that moves through matter or space and move energy from one place to another
What mediums can mechanical waves move through? Only through matter
What are the two types of mechanical waves? Transverse and Compressional (longitudinal)
Transverse waves move matter at what angle to the direction in which the wave travels? Right angle
Compressional waves move matter in what direction compared to the direction in which the wave travels? The same direction
What are the places where the wave is squeezed together called? Compressions
What are the places where the wave is spread apart called? Rarefactions
The compressions and rarefactions travel along the matter but the matter only moves... Back and forth
What are electromagnetic waves? Transverse waves that can travel through matter or empty space
What are wavelengths? The distance between two crests or troughs
What is frequency? The number of wavelengths that pass by a point each second
What is the human perception of sound frequency? Pitch
What is amplitude (transverse waves)? The distance between a waves crest and trough divided by two
What is amplitude (compressional waves)? It depends on the density of the compressions and rarefactions
The more energy a wave has, the larger its... Amplitude
Amplitude is an indication of what? Energy
What is the formula for wave speed? Wave speed= Wavelength x Frequency
Wave speed depends on what? The medium the wave is traveling through
What is the crest of a wave? The highest part of the transverse wave
What is the trough of a wave? The lowest part of a transverse wave
When waves travel from one material to another they change... Direction
What is it called when waves bounce off of surfaces? Reflect
What is it called when waves change directions? Refract
What is it called when waves bend around obstacles? Diffract
What is the angle of incidence? The angle between the normal line and the incident ray?
What is the angle of reflection? The angle between the normal line of the reflected ray
What is the law of reflection? The angle of incidence= the angle of reflection
Sound waves are what kind of waves? Compressional wave
What mediums can sound waves travel through? Only matter
The speed of sound waves depends on what? The matter that it's traveling through
What is a waves intensity? The amount of energy a wave carries past a certain area each second
What is the relationship of the distance you are to the origin of the sound and its intensity? The closer you are to the origin of a sound, the greater the intensity
The measurement of intensity is... Decibels
Greater intensity= greater... Amplitude
What is how we perceive intensity? Loudness
What are electromagnetic waves? Waves that travel through matter or empty space
All electromagnetic waves are... Transverse
Infared waves are what in relation to visible light? Slightly longer than visible light
White light is... A combination of every colour
Ultraviolet waves are what in relation to visible light? Slightly shorter than visible light
What are H+ ions called? Hydronium Ions
What form of energy is sound? Mechanical
Which colour on the electromagnetic spectrum has the longest wavelength? Red
Which colour on the electromagnetic spectrum has the shortest wavelength? Violet
What is sublimation? The phase change from solid to gas
What is deposition? The phase change from gas to solid
Electromagnetic waves all have the same speed in what medium? A vacuum
The angle of incidence= The angle of reflection
Does sound travel faster or slower in mediums such as steel than in air? Faster
H20 is... A compound
For most waves a temperature increase makes the speed... Faster
As water evaporates from a surface the temperature of the surface... Stays the same
How does salt melt ice or snow on sidewalks? It lowers the melting point
Created by: lopiegabby