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GRE 13


shore up to support part of a building or other large structure by placing large pieces of wood or metal against or under it so that it does not fall down ; Timbers were used to shore up the tunnel.
aloof not friendly or interested in other people ; distant, remote ; کناره گیر ; He was a cold man, aloof and distant.
placid (of a person or animal) not easily upset or excited ; ارام ؛ متین ; "this horse has a placid nature"
restive rebellious ; سرکش
skittish چموش ;
vociferous expressing your opinions or feelings in a loud and confident way ; vociferous protests ; پر سروصدا ; a vociferous critic of the president's stance
electorate the people in a country or an area who have the right to vote, thought of as a group ; دارای حق رای ; Only 60% of the electorate voted in the last election.
retrospective looking back on or dealing with past events or situations ; back-dated ; "our survey was retrospective"
pleading an act of asking for something that you want very much, in an emotional way ; He refused to give in to her pleadings.
unseemly not polite or suitable for a particular situation ; improper ;
indecorous embarrassing or not socially acceptable ; improper ; unseemly
perforate to make a hole or holes through something ; penetrate ;pierce ; The explosion perforated his eardrum.
stiffen to make yourself or part of your body firm, straight and still, especially because you are angry or frightened ; She stiffened with fear.
amenable easy to control; willing to be influenced by somebody/something ; تابع ; They had three very amenable children.
dairy a place on a farm where milk is kept and where butter and cheese are made ; 2 a company that sells milk, eggs, cheese and other milk products ; 3 (New Zealand English) a small local shop ; I went to buy a paper at the corner dairy.
abolish to officially end a law, a system or an institution, از میان بر داشتن ; This tax should be abolished.
utopian having a strong belief that everything can be perfect, often in a way that does not seem to be realistic or practical ; تخیلی ; utopian ideals ; a utopian society
emancipate to free somebody, especially from legal, political or social restrictions ; set free ; رها کردن ; Slaves were not emancipated until 1863 in the United States.
rebut /rɪˈbʌt/ to say or prove that a statement or criticism is false ; refute ; an attempt to publicly rebut rumours of a divorce
helix /ˈhiːlɪks/ a shape like a spiral or a line curved around a cylinder or cone ; مارپیچ ;
woo to try to get the support of somebody ; try to get the lot of ; Voters are being wooed with promises of lower taxes ; Selected items are being sold at half price to woo customers into the store.
defy openly resist or refuse to obey ; "a woman who defies convention"
rugged /ˈrʌɡɪd/ تنومند ؛ قوی
sinister seeming evil or dangerous; making you think something bad will happen ; شیطانی ; There was something cold and sinister about him ; There is another, more sinister, possibility.
contemptuous showing contempt; scornful ; تحقیر امیز ;
irksome annoying or irritating ; ازار دهنده ;
pivotal of great importance because other things depend on it ; محوری ؛ اساسی ; a pivotal role in European affairs
recondite not known about or understood by many people ; obscure ; پیچیده و مبهم ; a recondite subject
morbid having or expressing a strong interest in sad or unpleasant things, especially disease or death ; ناسالم ؛ مریض ; He had a morbid fascination with blood. ‘He might even die.’ ‘Don't be so morbid. My mind was filled with morbid thoughts of death.
predilection if you have a predilection for something, you like it very much ; علاقه شدید به چیزی داشتن ; an artist with a predilection for bright colours
daunt to make somebody feel nervous and less confident about doing something ; intimidate ; ترساندن ; She was a brave woman but she felt daunted by the task ahead.
impediment to something that delays or stops the progress of something ; obstacle ; The level of inflation is a serious impediment to economic recovery.
counterfeit made to look exactly like something in order to trick people into thinking that they are getting the real thing ; جعلی ; fake ; counterfeit watches
manipulate to control or influence somebody/something, often in a dishonest way so that they do not realize it ; دست کاری کردن ; She uses her charm to manipulate people ; As a politician, he knows how to manipulate public opinion.
canonize to state officially that somebody is now a saint ; شرعی کردن ;
pathetic making you feel pity or sadness ; pitiful ; تاثر اور ; a pathetic and lonely old man ; The starving children were a pathetic sight.
scintillating very clever, amusing and interesting ; a scintillating performance ; Statistics on unemployment levels hardly make for scintillating reading.
intimate having a close and friendly relationship ; intimate friends ; We're not on intimate terms with our neighbours.
take a heavy toll (on somebody/something)| take its toll (on somebody/something) to have a bad effect on somebody/something; to cause a lot of damage, deaths, suffering, etc ; Illness had taken a heavy toll on her.
excise cut off ; قطع کردن "the precision with which surgeons can excise brain tumors"
conceal keep from sight; hide ; "a line of sand dunes concealed the distant sea"
rejuvenate to make somebody/something look or feel younger or more lively ; His new job seemed to rejuvenate him ; special creams to rejuvenate the skin
consolidate to make a position of power or success stronger so that it is more likely to continue ; With this new movie he has consolidated his position as the country's leading director ; Italy consolidated their lead with a second goal.
indictment /ɪnˈdaɪtmənt/ the act of officially accusing somebody of a crime ; اتهام ; This led to his indictment on allegations of conspiracy.
restrain to stop somebody/something from doing something, especially by using physical force ; مهار کاردن ؛ نگه داشتن ; restrain somebody/something The prisoner had to be restrained by the police. He placed a restraining hand on her arm.
impecunious /ˌɪmpɪˈkjuːniəs/ having little or no money ; poor ; penniless ; an impecunious student
precocious having developed particular abilities and ways of behaving at a much younger age than usual ; زود رس ; a precocious child who started her acting career at the age of 5 ; sexually precocious; From an early age she displayed a precocious talent for music
feign to pretend that you have a particular feeling or that you are ill/sick, tired, etc; He survived the massacre by feigning death ; ‘Who cares?’ said Alex, feigning indifference ; ‘A present for me?’ she asked with feigned surprise.
massacre /ˈmæsəkə(r) / the killing of a large number of people especially in a cruel way ; the bloody massacre of innocent civilians ;
dissemble to hide your real feelings or intentions, often by pretending to have different ones ; وانمود کردن ؛ پنهان کردن ; She was a very honest person who was incapable of dissembling.
untapped بکر و دست نخورده
fleeting lasting only a short time ; brief ; a fleeting glimpse/smile ; a fleeting moment of happiness ; We paid a fleeting visit to Paris.
abstruse /æbˈstruːs/ difficult to understand ; an abstruse argument
hortatory tending or aiming to exhort(admonish) ; "the central bank relied on hortatory messages and voluntary compliance"
transgress to go beyond the limit of what is morally or legally acceptable ; از حد گذشتن ; They had transgressed the bounds of decency(نجابت) ;
credible that can be believed or trusted ; convincing ; باور کردنی ; معتبر ; a credible explanation/witness ; It is just not credible that she would cheat.
extant /ekˈstænt/ still in existence ; extant remains of the ancient wall ; A limited number of documents from the period are still extant.
counterproductive having the opposite effect to the one which was intended ; Increases in taxation would be counterproductive.
underappreciated fail to value (someone or something) highly enough. "one of the jazz world's most underappreciated artists"
overstated exaggerated
disseminate to spread information, knowledge, etc. so that it reaches many people ; منتشر کردن ; Their findings have been widely disseminated.
confounded used when describing something to show that you are annoyed ;
relish to get great pleasure from something; to want very much to do or have something ; enjoy ; relish something ; to relish a fight/challenge/debate ; I don't relish the prospect of getting up early tomorrow.
make out 1) have sex with sb or kissing sb ; 2) understand , recognize
long-winded continuing for too long and therefore boring ; a long-winded speaker ; a long-winded process
prescient knowing or appearing to know about things before they happen ; از قبل اگاه ; prescient warnings
foresight the ability to predict what is likely to happen and to use this to prepare for the future ; She had had the foresight to prepare herself financially in case of an accident ; The government's policies show a remarkable lack of foresight.
serendipity the fact of something interesting or pleasant happening by chance ; a happy chance ; Meeting her like that, and there of all places, was true serendipity!
shun to avoid somebody/something ; She was shunned by her family when she remarried ; an actor who shuns publicity
revive to become, or to make somebody/something become, conscious or healthy and strong again ; The flowers soon revived in water ; The economy is beginning to revive.
blemish a mark on the skin or on an object that spoils it and makes it look less beautiful or perfect ; لکه دار کردن ؛ عیب و نقص ; make-up to cover blemishes (figurative) His reputation is without a blemish.
affiliated closely connected to or controlled by a group or an organization ; وابسته ; All affiliated members can vote ; a government-affiliated institute
kindred your family and relatives (plural) ; وابستگان ;
imperative very important and needing immediate attention or action ; vital ; It is absolutely imperative that we finish by next week.
commensurate /kəˈmenʃərət/ matching something in size, importance, quality, etc ; proportionate ; متناسب ; Salary will be commensurate with experience.
coalesce to come together to form one larger group, substance, etc ; amalgamate ; The puddles had coalesced into a small stream.
mortify to make somebody feel very ashamed or embarrassed ; تحقیر کردن ؛ ازردن ; synonym humiliate ; She was mortified to realize he had heard every word she said.
rallying the action or process of coming together to support a person or cause or take concerted action.
incensed very angry ; They were incensed at the decision.
iconoclastic criticizing popular beliefs or established customs and ideas ;
heterodox not following the usual or accepted beliefs and opinions ;
doctrinaire strictly following a theory in all circumstances, even if there are practical problems or disagreement
integrative serving or intending to unify separate things ; "an integrative approach to learning"
synthesizing to combine separate ideas, beliefs, styles, etc.
pervasive existing in all parts of a place or thing; spreading gradually to affect all parts of a place or thing ; فراگیر ; a pervasive smell of damp ; Her influence is all-pervasive (= it affects everyone and everything).
sporadic happening only occasionally or at intervals that are not regular ; پراکنده ؛ تک و توک ;
omnipresent present everywhere
scanty too little in amount for what is needed ; کم ؛ ناکافی ; Details of his life are scanty
meager inadequate ; scanty ; ناچیز
acute very serious or severe ; There is an acute shortage of water ; acute pain ; the world's acute environmental problems
disparate /ˈdɪspərət / made up of parts or people that are very different from each other ; مختلف ; a disparate group of individuals
diverge 1) to separate and go in different directions ; 2) to be different ;
quotidian /kwɒˈtɪdiən/ of or occurring every day; daily ; "the car sped noisily off through the quotidian traffic"
staple forming a basic, large or important part of something ; جز اصلی ; The staple crop is rice. Jeans are a staple part of everyone's wardrobe.
herald to be a sign that something is going to happen ; harbinger ; These talks could herald a new era of peace ; She felt a dull ache in her right temple, heralding a migraine.
panacea /ˌpænəˈsiːə/ something that will solve all the problems of a particular situation ; نوش دارو؛ اکسیر ; There is no single panacea for the problem of unemployment.
cursory done quickly and without giving enough attention to details ; brief, perfunctory ; سرسری ; a cursory glance/examination/inspection
prevalent that exists or is very common at a particular time or in a particular place ; common ; شایع ; a prevalent view ; These prejudices are particularly prevalent among people living in the North ; The disease is even more prevalent in Latin America.
shrewd clever at understanding and making judgements about a situation ; زرنگ ؛ زیرک ; a shrewd businessman She is a shrewd judge of character.
canny intelligent, careful and showing good judgement, especially in business or politics ; a canny politician ; a canny move ;
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