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PH 109 Final Part 1

PH 109 Final part 1

QuestionAnswer
A light year is the distance light travels in one year
In order to account for retrograde motion, the geocentric model had to add another circle to a planet's orbit
Kepler's first law states that planets revolve around the Sun in elliptical orbits
What time of day does the first quarter Moon rise? noon
If the Earth were inclined more on its axis than it currently is, what would be the consequences? more drastic seasons
A shift in the direction of an object cause by a change in the position of an observer is called parallax
Newton finally solved the problem of planetary motions by inventing calculus
Newton's first law says objects continue their current motion unless forces act on them
Why are there seven days of the week on our current calendars? that was how many celestial objects in the sky moved with respect to other objects
The apparent path of the sun around the celestial sphere against the background of the stars during the year is ecliptic
Large telescopes are reflecting rather than refracting because mirrors are easier to support than lenses
Galileo's observations of Venus showed phases like the Moon
When the sun appears to cross the equator from the north to south this is called fall
Who were the first to know the Earth was round? the Greeks
What did Galileo observe with the planet Jupiter that helped change the view of our solar system? Jupiter had four moons in orbit around it
This person invented Calculus Newton
What will happen to the strength of the force of gravity between two bodies if their distances is increased by a factor of three? it will decrease by a factor of 9
The frequency at which a star emits the most light depends upon the star's temperature
what was special about Galileo's observation of Venus? it proved that Venus must orbit around the Sun
Which applies the greatest force, the Moon on the Earth or the Earth on the Moon? They are the same
Our bodies ordinarily emit infrared light
the point directly over an observer's head is that observer's zenith
Polaris, the North Star, does not appear to move in the sky because It lies approximately over the northern axis of the Earth
If I combine several telescopes together to synthesize a larger telescope I have created a(n) interferometer
Aliens abduct me but then set me down at a different place on the Earth. I observe the diurnal motion of the stars and note that they rise straight up in the East and go overhead and set straight in the West. Where am I? The Equator
What is the approximate azimuth and elevation of Mars just as it rises? az= 90 degrees, el= 10 degrees
The stars in a constellation only appear to be related
Why don't we get eclipses during each full and new moon? The Moon's orbit plane is tipped to the equator
The significance of the constellations is they were inherited from antiquity but have limited meaning
What do we call the event when the Earth's shadow falls on the Moon's surface? lunar eclipse
A planet in a highly elliptical orbit has its greatest speed when it is closest to the Sun
The ability of a telescope to image faint objects depends on the area of its lens. If I double the size of a circular telescope, what happens to its ability to image faint objects? it increases by four
Viewed looking down upon the North Pole, the Earth would be seen rotating counter-clockwise
A device that breaks light up into various colors is called a spectrometer
Why do astronomers want to observe in different parts of the spectrum? because they observe different physics
retrograde motion is when the apparent loop of a planet makes in the sky when overtaken by another planet
Star A appears bluish white in color, while star B appears reddish in color. This tells you that star a is hotter than star b
The radio part of the spectrum is most sensitive to which component of the universe? gas
A police officer tells me that my blue shift velocity exceeded posted limits. What does he mean? you were speeding towards him.
What was significant about Galileo's observations of the planet Jupiter? He saw Moons in orbit which proved everything did not orbit around Earth
Most extrasolar planets have been found by transits
Which body causes the greatest tidal forces on the Earth? the Moon
This planet has the greatest day/night temperature differences Mercury
This planet's density is so small it could float in a bathtub if you had one big enough Saturn
The clouds of Venus are made mostly of Sulfuric acid
The asteroid belt was probably formed by The result of two small planets colliding
The greenhouse effect occurs because carbon dioxide is transparent to visible light and opaque to infrared radiation.
What is the most famous recurring meteor shower? Perseid
Why does Mars have seasons? Its axis is tilted relative to its orbital plane
The many ringlets which compose planetary ring systems are caused by gravitational resonances
The gas tail of a comet always points away from the sun
This planet has a very Moon-like surface Mercury
Venus is a planet showing an extreme version of what? the greenhouse effect
The rings of Uranus were discovered when? during an occultation of a star
Cassini's division is a gap in Saturn's rings
The main reason the Earth is able to retain an atmosphere is its gravity is strong enough to hold an atmosphere
So far, most of the discovered extrasolar planets are hot Jupiters
What theory of the Moon's origin is favored by most astronomers today? The Moon originated as material torn from the young, mostly molten Earth by centrifugal or tidal force
What factor caused different planets to form out of different types of material? The variation in temperature throughout the solar nebula.
Europa has few craters because it has erased craters nearly as fast as they have formed
What produces aurora? Collisions of high energy particles with atmospheric gas
The presence of Earth's magnetic field is a good indication that a quantity of liquid metal is swirling around in the Earth's core
Suppose a planet is orbited by a number of satellites. Which of the satellites will feel the strongest tidal forces due to the planet? A large satellite in a close orbit
How do we know the Earth has a liquid core? only compression waves make it through
This planet has the strongest magnetic field in the solar system Jupiter
The Cobb family wants to go to the beach during the highest of tides. When should they go? during new Moon or Full phase
How often does a location on the Earth experience a "High" tide? twice per day
The light given off by a comet is a reflected sunlight
The rate of cratering on the lunar highlands helps to show that They are older than the maria.
The gas that is most responsible for the greenhouse effect on Earth is Carbon Dioxide
What causes a meteor shower? Earth crosses the orbit of a comet
This is the only planet that was mathematically predicted to exist Neptune
How big does a meteor have to be before it can strike the ground? fist sized
How do the escape velocities of the Jovian planets compare to the terrestrial planets? The Jovian planets have much higher escape velocities
Which of the Jupiter's satellites has volcanoes of sulfur? Io
How do we usually measure the rotation rates of the terrestrial planets? using the Doppler effect
Shepherd moons are moons which shepherd particles into rings
How often does a location on the Moon experience a tide? never
The Roche limit is the distance from a planet where moons cannot exist
Meteor showers get their name from the constellation they appear to come from
Created by: emulligan