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Organic Chem

Why does the bond strength of a carbon- halogen bond decrease as the size of the halogen increases? The size of the p orbital of the halogen is progressively more mismatched against the sp3 orbital of the carbon
What occurs in a nucleophilic substitution? A nucleophile replaces the halide of a haloalkane
In all cases of using "electron pushing" arrows in reaction mechanisms, what do the arrows denote? The movement of electrons
What occurs in all SN2 reactions? Inversion of configuration from reactant to product
What do E1 reactions produce? Alkenes
In an E2 Mechanism, what does the strong base attack? The hydrogen next to the carbon bearing the leaving group
What affects the competition between substitution and elimination reactions? Steric bulk around the nucleophilic atom, steric hindrance at the haloalkane, and nucleophile basicity
What accompanies SN1 reactions with tertiary haloalkanes? E1 reaction products
What defines an organic compound as an alcohol? The presence of at least an -OH group in the molecule
What intermolecular force enhances the water solubility of alcohols? Dipole interactions
Why is water more difficult to evaporate than ethanol? more hydrogen bonding between oxygen and hydrogen
In organic chemistry, what constitutes an oxidation? a reaction that adds more oxygen atoms to a molecule
Why is the production of ketone from an alcohol considered an oxidation? because it adds an oxygen molecule
An organometallic reagent must include what type of elements? at least one carbon atom and a halogen
What is the byproduct of a Grignard reagent and an aldehyde?
What are Isomers? molecules with the same chemical composition and general formula but different developped formula
What are Constitutional isomers? isomer whose atoms have a different connectivity
What are Stereoisomers? isomers that have the same connectivity but differ in arrangements of their atoms in space
What are Enantiomers? stereoisomers that are nonsuperposable mirror images of each other
What are Diastereomers? stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other
In which direction is the R confirmation? Clockwise, based on highest priorities
In which direction is the S confirmation? Counter clockwise, based on highest priorities
What happens if light goes through a polarizer? only one light plane emerges
If the analyzer is rotated clockwise, what becomes of the rotation? the rotation is positive and the molecule is Dextrorotatory (D).
If the analyzer is rotated counter clockwise, what becomes of the rotation? the rotation is negative and the molecule is Levorotatory (L).
What is the maximum number of stereoisomer available? 2^n where n is equal to the number of tetrahedral stereogenic centers. i.e. 2^n = 2^2 = 4 possible stereoisomers
What are Meso compouds? Achiral despite the presence of stereogenic centers
What is a Fisher Projection? a 2D representation of chiral molecules
What do vertical lines represent in the Fisher Projections? Molecules that go behind the plane of paper
What is a Nucleophile? any molecule with an unshared electron pair
What happens in a Nucleophilic substitution reaction? the nucleophile react with an electron deficient carbon
What is a leaving group? a substituent that can leave as a relatively stable entity
What is an SN2 reaction? when a nucleophile does a backside attack which results in an inversion of configurations
What is an SN1 reaction? a first order nucleophilic substitution
What happens in multistep reactions? The rate of the lowest step will be the rate of the entire reaction
What are considered GOOD leaving groups? I- Br- H2O Cl- HSO4- CH3SO3-
Created by: SierraHarris