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Ch. 5 vocab

amplitude The height of a wave from the origin to a crest, or from the origin to trough
atomic emission spectrum A set of frequencies of electromagnetic waves given off by atoms of an element; consists of a series of fine lines of individual colors
electromagnetic radiation .A form of energy exhibiting wavelike behavior as it travels trough space; can be described by wavelength, frequency, amplitude, and speed
electromagnetic spectrum Includes all forms of electromagnetic radiation; the types of radiation differ in their frequencies and wavelegths
frequency The number of waves that pass given point per second
photoelectric effect A phenomenon in which photo electrons are emitted from a metal's surface when light of a certain frequency shines on the surface
photon A particle of electromagnetic radiation with no mass that carries a quantum of energy
Planck's constant 6.626 X 10 -34 J X s, where J is the symbol for the joule
quantum The minimum amount of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom
wavelength The shortest distance between equivalent points on a continuous wave; is usually expressed in meters, centimeters, or nanometers
atomic orbital A three-dimensional region around the nucleus of an atom that describes an electron's probable location
de Broglie equation Predicts that all moving particles have wave characteristics and relates each particle's wavelength to its frequency, its mass, and Planck's constant
energy sublevel The energy levels contained within a principal energy level
ground state The lowest allowable energy state of an atom
Heisenberg uncertainty principle States that it is not possible to know precisely both the velocity and the position of a particle at the same time
principal energy level The major energy levels of an atom
principal quantum number Assigned by the quantum mechanical model to indicate the relative sizes and and energies of atomic orbitals
quantum mechanical model of the atom An atomic model in which electrons are treated as waves; also called the wave mechanical model of the atom
quantum number The number assigned to each orbit of an electron
aufbau principle States that each electron occupies the lowest energy orbital available
electron configuration The arrangement of electrons in an atom, which is prescribed by three rules--the aufbau principle, the Pauli exclusion principle, and Hund's rule
electron-dot structure Consists of an element's symbol, representing the atomic nucleus and inner-level electrons, that is surrounded by dots, representing the atom's valence electrons
Hund's rule States that single electrons with the same spin must occupy each equal-energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite spins can occupy the same orbitals
Pauli exclusion principle States that a maximum of two electrons can occupy a single atomic orbital but only if the electrons have opposite spins
valence electron The electrons in an atom's outermost orbitals; determine the chemical properties of an element
Created by: Kacey Jones