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Chemistry 5 Vocab

Chemistry Chapter 5 Vocab

TermDefinition
Electromagnetic radiation A form of energy exhibiting wavelike behavior as travels through space; can be described by wavelength, frequency, amplitude and speed.
Wavelength The shortest distance between equivalent points on a continuous wave; is usually expressed in meters, centimeters or nanometers.
Frequency The number of waves that pass a given point per second.
Amplitude The height of a wave from the origin to a crest, or from the origin to a trough.
Electromagnetic spectrum Includes all forms of electromagnetic radiation; the types of radiation differ in their frequencies an wavelengths.
Quantum The minimum amount of energy that can be gained or lost b an atom.
Planck's constant 6.626 x 10-34 J*s, where J is the symbol for the joule.
Photoelectric effect A phenomenon in which photoelectrons are emitted from a metal's surface when light of a certain frequency shines on the surface.
Photon A particle of electromagnetic radiation with no mass that carries a quantum of energy.
Atomic Emission Spectrum A set of frequencies of electromagnetic waves given off by atoms of an element; consist of a series of fine lines of individual colors.
Electron Configuration The arrangement of electrons in an atom, which is prescribed by three rules- the aufbau principle, the Pauli exclusion principle, and Hund's rule.
Aufbau Principle States that each electron occupies the lowest energy orbital available.
Pauli Exclusion Principle States that a maximum of two electrons can occupy a single atomic orbital but only if the electrons have opposite spins.
Hund's Rule States that single electrons with the same spin must occupy each equal- energy orbitals before additional electrons with opposite spins can occupy the same orbitals.
Valence Electron The electrons in an atom's outermost orbitals; determine the chemical properties of an element.
Electron-Dot- Structure Consists of an element's symbol, representing he atomic nucleus and inner level electrons, that is surrounded by dots, representing the atom's valence electrons.
Ground State the lowest allowable energy state of an atom
Quantum Number the number assigned to each orbit of an electron
de Broglie Equation predicts that all moving particles have wave characteristics and relates each particle's wavelength to its frequency, its mass, and Planck's constant
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle states that it is not possible to know precisely both the velocity and the position of a particle at the same time
Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom an atomic model in which electrons are treated as waves; also called the wave mechanical model of the atom
Atomic Orbital a three-dimensional region around the nucleus of an atom that describes an an electron's probable location
Principal Quantum Number assigned b the quantum mechanical model to indicate thel relative sizes and energies of atomic orbitals
Principal Energy Level the major energy levels of an atom
Energy Sublevel the energy levels contained within a principle energy level