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Ch 4 Sec1 & 2

Introduction to Atoms and the Periodic Table

atom The basic particle from which all elements are made.
electron A negatively charged particle that is found outside the nucleus of an atom.
nucleus The central core of the atom, containing protons and usually neutrons.
proton A positively charged particle that is part of an atom's nucleus.
energy level A region of an atom in which electrons of the same energy are likely to be found.
neutron A small particle in the nucleus of an atom, with no electrical charge.
atomic number The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
isotope An atom with the same number of protons and a different number of neutrons from other atoms of the same element.
mass number The sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
atomic mass The average mass of all the isotopes of an element.
periodic table A chart of the elements showing the repeating pattern of their properties.
period A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table.
group Elements in the same vertical column of the periodic table; also called a family.
chemical symbol A one- or two-letter representation of an element.
plasma A gas-like state of matter consisting of a mixture of free electrons and atoms that are stripped of their electrons.
nuclear fusion The process in which two atomic nuclei combine to form a larger nucleus, forming a heavier element and releasing huge amounts of energy.
Where were the electrons located in Thomson's model of an atom? This model had electrons scattered throughout a ball of positive charge.
Where are the electrons located in the modern model of an atom? These are located in a cloudlike region surrounding the nucleus.
In general, why did atomic theory change with time? This change was because scientists obtained new experimental evidence about the structure of atoms.
What are the three main particles in the modern model of an atom? These are protons, electrons, and neutrons.
Why do atoms have no electrical charge even though most of their particles have charges? Each atom has equal numbers of positively charged protons and negatively charged electrons.
What is atomic number, and how is it used to distinguish one element from another? The number of protons in each atom of that element; each element has a unique atomic number because all atoms of that element have the same number of protons.
The atomic number of the isotope nitrogen-15 is 7. How many protons, neutrons, and electrons make up an atom of nitrogen-15? Each atom of nitrogen-15 contains 7 protons, 8 neutrons, and 7 electrons.
What properties do silver and copper share? Silver and copper are both shiny metals that tarnish in air.
Why is the atomic mass of an element an average? Because most elements consist of a mixture of isotopes.
Where are elements heavier than iron produced? These are produced in a supernova.
List three kinds of information about an element that can be found in a square of the periodic table. Element's name, chemical symbol, atomic number, and atomic mass.
What element has 47 protons in its nucleus? How many protons does silver have in its nucleus?
Created by: Tom Radeke



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