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Intro to Chemistry

Intro to Chemistry (2015)

atom The smallest unit of matter.
molecule It is made of 2 or more atoms held together by bonds. (Ex. CO2, C6H12O6, NaCl, O2…)
element A substance that consists of only one type of atoms like C or Mg or O2. It cannot be broken down by chemical reaction. All the known ones are found in the Periodic Table.
compound Substance made of 2 (or more) different types of atoms (like H2O or C6H12O6 - but not O2)
bond The attraction (force) that holds atoms together to make molecules. They contain energy! They are "made" of electrons.
chemical formula A set of chemical symbols that shows the elements and their proportions - how many of each are in one molecule.
chemical reaction A process that rearranges and recombines molecules and atoms, which results in the formation of new chemical substances.
reactants The “ingredients” necessary for a chemical reaction.
products What is created or produced after a chemical reaction.
organic compound A compound whose molecules contain carbon. Usually has C–H bonds, with carbon bonded to hydrogen.
enzyme A compound that helps speed up chemical reactions. In the body, they speed up the digestion (breakdown) of food into nutrient molecules.
photosynthesis When green plants use sunlight to synthesize food (glucose) from carbon dioxide and water. 6CO2 + 6H2O (+ light energy) --> C6H12O6 + 6O2 Happens in the chloroplasts.
cellular respiration The process by which cells use oxygen to break apart glucose to make energy for living. The energy formed is the compound ATP. C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy (ATP) It occurs in ALL cells (plant or animal), in the mitochondria.
Periodic Table A chart that organizes all the known elements by their chemical properties. Elements in a group (column) have similar properties. Metals are on the left, nonmetals on the right.
chemical energy Energy in chemical bonds. Can be released in a chemical reaction or absorbed when a new compound is formed.
glucose A simple sugar that is used by cells to make energy (by the cellular respiration reaction!)
mixture Two or more elements and/or compounds that are physically mixed, but not chemically combined. (Air, soil, blood are all examples.)
chemical change evidence of this can be: release of gas/bubbles, a color change or change in temperature
atomic number this number tells you the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. (it also tells you the number of electrons!)
Created by: rhk9