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Physics Exam

chapter 1, 25, 26, 27

simple harmonic motion the back-and-forth vibratory motion (often called oscillatory motion) of a swinging pendulum
sine curve a pictorial representation of a wave
What is the source of all the waves? Something that vibrates
crests the high points on a wave
troughs low points on a wave
amplitude refers to the distance between successive identical parts of a wave
What is physics about? Physics is about the nature of basic things such as motion, forces, energy, matter, heat, sound, light, and the composition of atoms
Why is the mathematics the languages of science? When scientific findings in nature are expressed mathematically, they are easier to verify or disprove by experiment
What is the scientific method and who invented it? They are effective in gaining, organizing, and applying new knowledge. Galileo Galilei, Italian physicist and Frances Bacon, English philosopher
What are the first four steps of a scientific method? (that they generally include some, if not all) 1. Recognize a problem 2. Make an educated guess-a hypothesis- about the answer 3. Predict the experiment 4. Perform experiments to test predictions
What is the fifth step? 5. Formulate the simplest general rule that organizes the main ingredients: hypothesis, prediction, and experimental outcome
fact a close agreement by competent observers who make a series of observations of the same phenomenon
hypothesis an educated guess that is not fully accepted until demonstrated by experiments
laws, principles hypotheses about the relationship among natural quantities are tested over and over again and not contradicted
When must a hypothesis, law, or principle be changed or abandoned? A scientist finds evidence that contradicts a hypothesis, law, or principle, then the hypothesis, law, or principle must be changed or abandoned
theory a synthesis of a large body of information that encompasses a well-tested and verified hypotheses about certain aspects of the natural world
How do you know if a hypothesis is scientific? Look to see if there is a test for proving it wrong
What is the difference between science and technology? Science is a method of answering theoretical questions; technology is a method of solving practical problems
How are science, art, and religion different? Science is mostly concerned with discovering and recording natural phenomena, the arts are concerned with the value of human interactions as they pertain to the senses, and religion is concerned with the source, purpose, and meaning of everything
How does progress today differ from progress thousands of years ago? It is much quicker
wavelength the distance from the top of one crest to the top of the next one
frequency the number of vibrations an object makes in a unit of time
hertz Unit of frequency: one cycler per second is 1 hertz
How does wave transfer energy? The energy transferred by a wave from a vibrating source to a receiver is carried by a disturbance in a medium
How do you calculate the speed of a wave? By multiplying the wavelength by the frequency
transverse wave A wave that has the motion of the medium at right angles to the direction a wave travels
What are some examples of transverse waves? Waves in the stretched strings of musical instruments and the electromagnetic waves that make up radio waves and light
longitudinal wave a wave that has the particles oscillate parallel to or a long the direction of the wave rather than at right angles to it
What is an example of a longitudinal wave? Sound waves
interference pattern a regular arrangement of places where wave effects are increased, decreased or neutralized
What causes interference patterns? When waves from different sources arrive at the same point at the same time
constructive interference the crest of one wave overlaps the crest of another and their individual effects add together, increases amplitude
destructive interference the crest of one wave overlaps the trough of another and their individual effects are reduced
out of phase the crests of one wave overlap the troughs of another to produce regions of zero amplitude
in phase the crests of one wave overlap the crests of the other, and the troughs overlap as well
standing wave is a wave that appears to stay in one place- it does not seem to move through the medium
nodes the stationary points on a standing
At what wavelengths can a standing wave from a vibrating medium? A standing wave forms only if half a wavelength or a multiple of a half a wavelength fits exactly into the length of the vibrating medium
bow wave crests that overlap at the edges, and the pattern made by these overlapping crests is a V shape
What causes a bow wave? A wave source moves faster than the wave it produces
shock wave a three-dimensional wave that consists of overlapping sphere that form a cone
What causes a shock wave? When an object moves faster than the speed of sound
sonic boom the sharp crack heard when the shock wave that sweeps behind a supersonic aircraft reaches the listeners
What is the source of all sound? the vibrations of material objects
pitch term that refers to how or low frequencies appear to be
infrasonic sound waves with frequencies below 20 hertz
ultrasonic frequencies about 20,000 hertz
compression pulse of compressed air
rarefaction pulse of low pressure
How does a sound wave travel through air? As a source sound vibrates, a series of compressions and rarefactions travels outward from the source
What media transmit sounds? Solids, liquids, and gases
What determines the speed of sound in a medium? 1. The temperature of the gas and the mass of the particles in the gas. 2. The speed of sound in a material's elasticity
What is the difference between sound intensity and loudness? Sound intensity is objective and is measured by instruments. Loudness, on the other hand, is a physiological sensation in the brain
What happens when an elastic method is disturbed? It vibrates as its own special set of frequencies, which together form its special sound
natural frequency the frequency at which an object vibrates when it is disturbed
forced vibration when a object is made to vibrate by another vibrating object that is nearby
Why are sounding boards an important part of stringed instruments? They are forced into vibration and sound
resonance a phenomenon that occurs when the frequency of a vibration forced an object matches the object's natural frequency and a dramatic increase in an amplitude occurs
What causes resonance? A force that pulls it back to its starting position and enough energy to keep it vibrating
What is the effect of constructive interference? The listener hears a louder sound
What is the effect of destructive interference? The listener hears a fainter sound or no sound at all
What causes beats? When two tones of slightly different frequency are sounded together, a regular fluctuation in the loudness of the combined sounds is heard
beats period variation in the loudness of sound
What is the nature of light? Light has a dual nature, part particle and part wave
photons massless bundles of concentrated electromagnetic energy
What was Michelson's experimental value for the speed of light? 299,920km/s which is usually rounded to 300,000 km/s
ray a thin beam of light
shadow where light cannot reach
umbra a total shadow
penumbra a partial shadow
What causes the formation of shadows? When light shines on a object, some of the rays may be stopped while others pass on in a straight-line path
polarization the aligning of vibrations in a transverse wave, usually by filtering out waves of other directions
Why is a glare from a horizontal surface horizontally polarized? Light that reflects at glancing angles from nonmetallic surfaces, such as glass, water, or roads, vibrates mainly in the plane of the reflecting surface
How can you see photographs or movies in 3-D? A pair of photographs or movie frames, taken a short distance apart (about average eye spacing) can be seen in 3-D when the left eye sees only the left view and the right eye sees only the right view
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