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Chem 08 The Mole

Chemical quantities terminology.

relative mass of an atom on the "C-12 = 12.000000" scale atomic mass
sum of the masses of atoms in an ionic formula formula mass
sum of the masses of atoms in a molecule molecular mass
unit for measuring atomic, formula, or molecular masses; one-twelfth the mass of a C-12 isotope atomic mass unit; a.m.u. OR u.; (aka 'dalton')
atomic, formula, or molecular mass measured in grams gram-atomic mass (g.a.m.), gram-formula mass (g.f.m.), gram-molecular mass (g.a.m.)
amount of substance containing 6.022 x 10^23 representative particles a mole
mass of one mole of a substance molar mass
representative particles (building blocks) of most elements atoms
representative particles (building blocks) of covalent compounds and diatomic elements molecules
representative particles (building blocks) of ionic compounds formula units
honorary name given to 6.022 x 10^23, the # of representative particles in 1 mole Avogadro's number
obtained by finding out what portion of a compound is contributed by each element (and by water in the case of a hydrate) percent composition
the volume of a gas that contains Avogadro's number (6.022 x 10^23) of representative gaseous particles molar volume
average pressure exerted by the atmosphere at sea level standard pressure (SP) a.k.a.: 1 atmosphere a.k.a. 14.7 psi, etc.
standard temperature and pressure (S.T.P.) for gases 273 K (0 oC) and 1 atm
molar volume of a gas at STP 22.4 liters
simplest whole # ratio of atoms in the formula of a compound empirical formula
equal volumes of different gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of gas particles Avogadro's hypothesis
If solving for empirical formula from % composition and find coefficient ratio of 1 to ?.33 or 1 to ?.67, which multiplier is applied to both? 3x Ex: 3x(1 and 1.33) = 3 to 4 ratio Ex: 3x(1 and 1.67) = 3 to 5 ratio
If solving for empirical formula from % composition and find coefficient ratio of 1 to 1.25, or 1 to 1.75, which multiplier is applied to both? 4x 4x(1 and 1.25) = 4 to 5 ratio 4x(1 and 1.75) = 4 to 7 ratio
If solving for empirical formula from % composition and find coefficient ratio of 1 to 1.5, which multiplier is applied to both? 2x 2(1 and 1.5) = 2 to 3 ratio
FINDING MOLECULAR FORMULA If empirical formula is C2H5, and... molecular weight is 58.0, then... Solve for "X" and give the molecular formula!!! (mass C2H5)X = 58.0 29X=58 X=2 C4H10
total atoms in formula (NH4)2SO4 15
total atoms in formula Pb3(PO4)4 23
steps to find empirical formula from percent composition 1. pretend you have 100 g of compound 2. change % to grams 3. change g to moles 4a. divide by smallest mole 4b. find multiplier if needed 5. use #'s as subscripts
how to find molecular formula from empirical formula and molar mass 1. (E.F. mass)X = molar mass 2. solve for X 3. use X to multiply all subscripts
Created by: goakley