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Chem 1052


Combustion the reaction of an alcohol with oxygen to produce CO2, H2O, and energy
what happens when an organic comp is oxidized? -There's an increase in number of C-O bonds ...... -There's a loss of H
what happens when an organic comp is reduced? -there's a decrease in number of C-O bonds ........ -there's a gain of H
bond formed btwn alcohol molecs? H bonds
why are phenols weak acids they have an -OH group that slightly ionizes
what is the carbonyl group in an aldehyde it has a carbonyl C bonded to one H atom
what is the carbonyl group in a ketone it has the carbonyl C bonded to 2 C atoms
hemiacetals C atoms that contain -OH group and an alkoxy group (-OR)
when are hemiacetals formed they are formed when an alcohol adds to an aldehyde or ketone in the presence of an acid catalyst
what do hemiacetals react with they react with a 2nd alcohol molec to produce an acetal
acetal -a C with 2 alkoxy groups (-OR) -are produced when a hemiacetal reacts with another alcohol molec
cyclic acetals -they form when an alcohol adds to a cyclic hemiacetal ********************** -the type of linkage that bonds glucose molecs to each other in formation of disaccharides and polysaccharides
maltose -a disaccharide consisting of 2 glucose molecs linked by an acetal bond ************* -has one glucose that retains the cyclic hemiacetal bond
structural isomers molecules that have the same formula but diff bonding arrangements
stereoisomers -have atoms that are bonded in the same sequence, but differ in the way they're arranged in space -molecs that are nonsuperimposable mirror images
molecs are chiral when they are ______. nonnsuperimposable
nonsuperimposable when something's mirror image can't be completely matched
when are molecs achiral when the mirror image of the molec is identical and can be superimposed on the original
when are C atoms chiral -when they have 4 diff atoms or groups *********** -when they are nonsuperimposable
enantiomers stereoisomers that cannot be superimposed
what are the enantiomers of a chiral molec -mirror images that cannot be superimposed on each other
are achiral structures nonsuperimposable or superimposable? superimposable
what happens when the mirror image of an achiral structure is rotated? -the structure is aligned with its initial structure ******** -its mirror image is superimposable
what are the 3 types of carbs monosaccharides disaccharides polysaccharides
what do monosaccharides consist of -3-6 C atoms ************* -a carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone) ************* -several (-OH) groups
what are the two types of structures of monosaccharides aldoses ***** ketoses
aldoses -monosaccharide structure ********** -the carbonyl group on the first C is an aldehyde *********** -also has many (-OH) groups
ketoses -monosaccharide structure ************** -there's a ketone carbonyl group on the 2nd C ****************** -also has many (-OH) groups
naming monosaccharides -the names end in (-ose) ************ -may be named according to the # of C atoms (triose = 3 C atoms)
naming aldoses put aldo- in front of the monosaccharide name
naming ketoses put keto- in front of the monosaccharide name
what are the most important monosaccharides the hexoses of: -glucose -galactose -fructose
when two monosaccharides combine in a dehydration rxn, what are the products? water and acetal
what happens hen monosaccharides are reduced -the carbonyl group is turned into an alcohol group *********** -produces sugar alcohols called alditols (named by replacing -ose with -itol)
what are the three most common disaccharides maltose ***** lactose ****** sucrose
maltose -a disaccharide composed of two D-glucose molecs ****** -linked by a-1,4-glycosidic bond btwn a-OH on C1 of 1st glucose and -OH on C4 of 2nd glucose ******* -found in both a- and B- forms
lactose -a disaccharide of B-D-galactose and a- or B-D-glucose *********** -contains a B1,4-glycosidic bond ******************* -found in both a- and B- forms
sucrose -aka table sugar **************** -disaccharide of a-D-glucose and B-D-fructose *********** -has an a,B-1,2-glycosidic bond
how do polysaccharides differ from one another -differ in types of links btwn monosaccharides and the monosaccharides in the polymer -differ by amt of branching in the polymer
what is the IUPAC name for Benzene benzoic acid
naming carboxylic acids (IUPAC) 1.) identify longest C chain and replace (-e) in alkane name with (-oic acid) ************ 2.) give location and name of each sub by counting the carboxyl C as 1
how are carboxylic acids prepared -by oxidizing primary alcohols or aldehydes **** -from oxidation of ethanol
solubility of carboxylic acids with 1-5 C in water very soluble in water
polarity of carboxylic acids -strongly polar ************* -have 2 polar groups: hydroxyl (-OH) and carbonyl (C=O)
how do esters differ from carboxylic acids they differ from carboxylic acids by replacement of (-OH) group with alkoxy group (-OR)
esterification -rxn of a carboxylic acid and alcohol in presence of an acid catalyst to produce an ester ******* -is a condensation rxn b/c it produces water
naming esters (IUPAC) 1.) write the name of the C chain from the alcohol as an alkyl group ******************* 2.) change the -ic acid of the acid name to -ate
esters have higher BP's than _____ have higher BP than for alkanes of similar mass
esters have lower BP's than _____ have lower BP than alcohols and carboxylic acids of similar mass b/c esters can't form H bonds with each other
acid hydrolysis of esters -an ester reacts with water to produce a carboxylic acid and an alcohol ******************* -a strong acid catalyst or an enzyme is required
base hydrolysis -aka saponification******* -rxn of an ester w/ a strong base************** -produces the salt of the carboxylic acid and an alcohol
what does saponification of long-chain fatty acids produce? it produces acid salts called "soaps"
Created by: ekaltenrieder