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Chemistry

Vocabulary from the chemistry unit

QuestionAnswer
Atom Building blocks of matter; made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons
Proton Positive charge; found in nucleus
Neutron No charge; found in nucleus
Electron Negative charge; found in energy levels around the nucleus
Atomic Mass Equal to the number of protons and neutrons in an atom
Atomic Number The number of protons (+) and electrons (-) in an atom
Bohr Diagram Shows all electrons in an atom using a "bulls-eye" diagram
Family A group or column in the periodic table; such as Alkali Metals or Halogens
Energy level Surround the nucleus; contains electrons
Leptons A subatomic particle such as an electron
Isotope Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons; such as C-12, C-13, & C-14
Metal Elements found on the left-side of the periodic table; good conductors of heat and electricity
Metalloid An element whose properties are intermediate between those of metals and solid nonmetals
Nonmetal Elements found on the right side of the periodic table that are poor conductors of electricity and heat
Lewis Structure Shows the number of valence electrons in an atom; also called electron-dot diagram
Quark Makes up protons and neutrons; connected by gluons
Period Rows in the periodic table; have the same number of energy levels
Nucleus Center of an atom that contains protons and neutrons
Periodic Table Chart that shows the periodic properties of the elements; elements arranged by increasing atomic number
Valence Electrons found in the outermost energy level
Chemical Symbol Letter or letters that represent an element, such as H or He
Compound Two or more substances that are chemically combined, such as H20 (water) and NaCl (salt)
Mixture Two or more substances that are not chemically combined, such as milk or lemonade
Matter Anything that has mass and volume
Chemical Property Used to describe how a substance will react with other substances
Physical Property Used to describe the physical characteristics of matter, such as size, shape, color, texture, conductivity, phase
Chemical Change Also called a chemical reaction; results in the creation of a new substance
Physical Change Change in size, shape, state, or other physical property of a substance; still the same substance after the change
Monomers Molecules that are linked together to make a polymer; such as amino acids in proteins
Polymer Made up of monomers; such as DNA, proteins, and cotton
Petrochemicals Chemicals made from petroleum; used to make synthetic polymers (plastics)
Ion An atom that has lost or gained electrons
Ionic Bond Bond between a metal and a nonmetal that involves a transfer of electrons
Covalent Bond Bond between two nonmetals that involves the sharing of electrons
Reactants Substances that enter into a chemical reaction; appear before the arrow
Products Substances that are produced during a chemical reaction; appear after the arrow
Conservation of Mass Law that states that matter cannot be created or destroyed during a chemical reaction
Oxidation Number The number of electrons an atom may lose or gain, such as 1+ or 1-
Chemical Equations Represent chemical reactions, such as 2Mg + O2 --> 2MgO
Chemical Formulas Represent chemical compounds, such as H2O or MgO
Created by: ttomm